# Ski Related Definitions

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 Revision as of 22:07, 25 June 2011 (edit)Joe (Talk | contribs) (→'''R''')← Previous diff Current revision (21:11, 21 June 2013) (edit) (undo)Joe (Talk | contribs) (→'''S''') (21 intermediate revisions not shown.) Line 10: Line 10: '''[[Anti-Rollback]]''' A mechanical system which prevents the weight of passengers on a lift from making the lift roll backwards in the event of engine or gearbox failure. Some modern lifts are designed to run in reverse for special purposes. '''[[Anti-Rollback]]''' A mechanical system which prevents the weight of passengers on a lift from making the lift roll backwards in the event of engine or gearbox failure. Some modern lifts are designed to run in reverse for special purposes. - '''[[Average Grade]]''' This is the average '''[[slope]]''' gradient (in percent) of the terrain under the length of the ski lift, from top terminal to '''[[bottom terminal]]'''. + '''[[Average Grade]]''' This is the average '''[[slope]]''' gradient (in percent) of the terrain under the length of the ski lift, from '''[[top terminal]]''' to '''[[bottom terminal]]'''. '''[[Average Width]]''' This is the average width of the entire trail, from top to bottom. This may be determined by field measurements, or by calculation utilizing the given trail acreage and '''[[slope length]]''' (i.e., acreage x 43,560ft/slope length). '''[[Average Width]]''' This is the average width of the entire trail, from top to bottom. This may be determined by field measurements, or by calculation utilizing the given trail acreage and '''[[slope length]]''' (i.e., acreage x 43,560ft/slope length). Line 34: Line 34: '''[[Boot shell]]''' hard plastic boot coating '''[[Boot shell]]''' hard plastic boot coating + + '''[[Bullwheel]]''' is a large wheel on which a '''[[wire rope]]''' turns, such as in a '''chair lift'''. In that application, the bullwheel that is attached to the '''[[prime mover]]''' is called the drive bullwheel, with the other known as the return bullwheel. == '''C''' == == '''C''' == Line 65: Line 67: '''[[Controlled Recreation Area]]''' the use and access the resort developer / operator “controls”, designed to facilitate the resort development. '''[[Controlled Recreation Area]]''' the use and access the resort developer / operator “controls”, designed to facilitate the resort development. + + '''[[Cooling tower]]''' '''[[Crossarm]]''' The horizontal arm on top of a tower, to which the sheave wheels are attached. '''[[Crossarm]]''' The horizontal arm on top of a tower, to which the sheave wheels are attached. Line 165: Line 169: == '''M''' == == '''M''' == '''[[Magic Carpet]]''' The Magic Carpet Ski Lift is a new conveyor lift product which provides a high capacity surface lift with a friendly design of virtually any length and for any rider. A magic carpet resembles a conveyor belt in which skiers board at the bottom with skis facing forwards, and are pulled uphill by the moving belt. Keeping snow off of the belt can be a problem. '''[[Magic Carpet]]''' The Magic Carpet Ski Lift is a new conveyor lift product which provides a high capacity surface lift with a friendly design of virtually any length and for any rider. A magic carpet resembles a conveyor belt in which skiers board at the bottom with skis facing forwards, and are pulled uphill by the moving belt. Keeping snow off of the belt can be a problem. + + '''[[Maze]]''' The area, as part of the '''[[Loading Area]]''', in which skiers and snowboarders gather while waiting to board a '''[[ski lift]]'''. Mazes are designed to optimize '''[[Chair Lift]]''' loading. Skiers and riders often call mazes '''[[lift lines]]'''. '''[[Maximum Grade]]''' This is the maximum gradient (in percent) occurring anywhere on the trail. '''[[Maximum Grade]]''' This is the maximum gradient (in percent) occurring anywhere on the trail. Line 187: Line 193: '''[[Public Bed Unit]]''' a '''[[bed unit]]''' available for public rental. '''[[Public Bed Unit]]''' a '''[[bed unit]]''' available for public rental. + + '''[[Pumping capacity]]''' == '''R''' == == '''R''' == Line 196: Line 204: '''[[Regulatory Authorities]]''' means all federal, municipal, local, regional or other regulatory approving authority or agency having jurisdiction over all or any part of the Development other than Government Agencies and includes Local Government. '''[[Regulatory Authorities]]''' means all federal, municipal, local, regional or other regulatory approving authority or agency having jurisdiction over all or any part of the Development other than Government Agencies and includes Local Government. + + '''[[Restraining bar]]''' or safety bar, help to hold passengers in the chair. If equipped, each chair has a retractable bar, sometimes with attached foot rests. In most configurations, a passenger may reach up and behind their head, grab the bar or a handle, and pull the restraint forward and down. Once the bar has rotated sufficiently, gravity assists positioning the bar to its down limit. Before disembarking, the bar must be rotated up, out of the way. '''[[Resort]]''' is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company. '''[[Resort]]''' is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company. Line 237: Line 247: '''[[Slope Length]]''' This is the length of the lift, from top terminal to bottom terminal, as measured on the ground (i.e., a three-dimensional measurement). '''[[Slope Length]]''' This is the length of the lift, from top terminal to bottom terminal, as measured on the ground (i.e., a three-dimensional measurement). - '''[[Snow Slider]]''' Refers to a person that slides down the '''[[hill]]''' using '''[[skis]]''', a snowboard, mono ski, snowblades, Big Foot skis, snow runners, or other devices attached to their feet. + '''[[Slopestyle]]''' is a type of '''[[winter]]''' sporting event where the goal is to perform the most difficult tricks while getting the highest amplitude off of jumps, with an emphasis on performing different types of tricks instead of doing one great trick repeatedly. It originated as a snowboarding competition format, but there are now many sports that are considered to have this style of competition, of which skiing and snowboarding are two of the most common. '''[[Slider Visit]]''' (Winter) Sometimes referred to as "[[skier visit]]", one person visiting a winter recreation area for all or part of a day or night for the purpose of skiing, snowboarding, snowblading, etc. This is the total number of lift tickets issued. Slider visits include a person holding a full-day, half-day, night, complimentary, adult, child, season, or any other ticket type that gives them the use of an area's lifts and trails. '''[[Slider Visit]]''' (Winter) Sometimes referred to as "[[skier visit]]", one person visiting a winter recreation area for all or part of a day or night for the purpose of skiing, snowboarding, snowblading, etc. This is the total number of lift tickets issued. Slider visits include a person holding a full-day, half-day, night, complimentary, adult, child, season, or any other ticket type that gives them the use of an area's lifts and trails. + + '''[[Snow Slider]]''' Refers to a person that slides down the '''[[hill]]''' using '''[[skis]]''', a snowboard, mono ski, snowblades, Big Foot skis, snow runners, or other devices attached to their feet. + + '''[[Snowmaking system]]''' A self-contained system for efficient wide-area coverage of downhill and cross-country ski trails, toboggan runs, jump hills, etc. The main components of a snowmaking installation: '''[[snow guns]]''', '''[[snowmaking pond]]''', air and '''[[water lines]]''', '''[[pumping station]]''', '''[[water cooling system]]'''s, compressed air station, docking points, electronic control and monitoring systems. == '''T''' == == '''T''' == Line 251: Line 265: '''[[Top Elevation]]''' This is the '''[[elevation]]''' at the top terminal of the '''[[ski lift]]'''. '''[[Top Elevation]]''' This is the '''[[elevation]]''' at the top terminal of the '''[[ski lift]]'''. + + '''[[Top terminal]]''' The terminal at the other end of the '''[[ski lift]]''' from the drive or '''[[bottom terminal]]'''. '''[[Torque]]''' The twisting movement of a ski. The amount it will twist along its length will affect its performance. Generally, the stiffer the torque, the higher will be the ski’s performance. '''[[Torque]]''' The twisting movement of a ski. The amount it will twist along its length will affect its performance. Generally, the stiffer the torque, the higher will be the ski’s performance. + + '''[[Tower guns]]''' The other basic type of '''[[snow gun]]''' in addition to the '''[[fan gun]]''' is the snow tower or tower gun. Tower guns are used primarily to cover narrower strips of trail in more wind-protected locations. '''[[Trail]]''' means an alpine ski run, cross country ski trail, or other trail shown in or contemplated by the Resort Master Plan. '''[[Trail]]''' means an alpine ski run, cross country ski trail, or other trail shown in or contemplated by the Resort Master Plan. Line 285: Line 303: '''[[Wire rope]]''' is a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid (or 'twisted') into a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. '''[[Wire rope]]''' is a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid (or 'twisted') into a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes. - == Also see == + == '''Also see''' == *'''[[Snow and Weather Glossary]]''' *'''[[Snow and Weather Glossary]]''' *'''[[Lighting Glossary]]''' *'''[[Lighting Glossary]]''' Line 294: Line 312: *'''[[Landform Gallery]]''' *'''[[Landform Gallery]]''' + == '''Ski Equipment Gallery''' == + + Image:Ski boot testing vancouver 2010.jpg|the height of the heel or sole of the boot from the bottom of the boot. + + Image:POC protectionW82003.jpg|'''[[Back protector]]''' a specially designed cover that protects the back from impacts. + + Image:Ski basket.jpg|'''[[Basket]]''': Typically round or star-shaped plastic piece located at the bottom end of a '''[[ski pole]]'''. Their primary purpose is to keep your poles from pushing too deep into the '''[[snow]]'''. + + Image:Ski Binding.jpg|'''[[Safety Bindings]]''' function as strain limiters. That is, these devices transfer specific demands occurring during skiing to an acceptable limit, and when this limit is overstepped, they release their firm hold to the '''[[ski]]'''. (See '''[[4306]].1.2, [[4206]].1.2, [[4008]].2.2''') + + Image:Ski Boot Buckle.jpg|'''[[Boot Buckle]]''' These are the devices that tighten the '''[[Outer shell]]''' to the foot. Most '''[[ski boots]]''' have five or four buckles.The buckles are what latch the ski boot closed. While there are many styles of buckles, the key components are the ladder, the bail, and the buckle itself. The ladder is the graduated rung that the bail, or wire, hooks onto so that the buckle can close to latch the boot tightly around the foot or ankle. '''[[Ski boots]]''' may have as many as four buckles, each drawing the boot tightly around a different segment of the foot or ankle. + + Image:Ski boot liner.png|'''[[Boot liner]]''' is the soft inner boot in '''[[ski boots]]'''. + + Image:Boot shell.PNG|'''[[Boot shell]]''' is the hard plastic boot, which contains the '''[[Boot liner]]''' and where the '''[[buckles]]''' are affixed. + + Image:Ski boot lower.png|'''[[Boot Sole]]''' The bottom of the '''[[ski boot]]''' that makes contact with the '''[[ski]]''' and '''[[binding]]''' is called the boot sole. Since this is the primary junction point between the boot and the ski it is critical to preserve its condition. Walking on hard surfaces can damage the boots’ sole changing the interaction between the boot and the binding reducing performance and safety. '''[[Toe and Heel Lug]]s''' are the portion of the sole that the binding grips onto. Some ski boots have replaceable lugs. + + Image:Ski Sidecut.PNG|'''[[Chord length]]''' The distance between the two bits of the ski touching the ground (the shovel and the tail) when the ski is lying on a flat surface. This is the distance usually used to denote a ski’s length. They used to be made in 5cm increments but now skis come in all sizes. + + Image:Footbed.jpg|'''[[Footbed]]''' is the removable platform inside the liner of the '''[[ski boot]]''' on which the foot rests. Custom footbeds are those molded by a bootfitter to conform to the shape of the skier’s sole for better fit and more precise energy transfer. + + Image:POC Helmet26575.jpg|A '''[[Helmet]]''' is a form of protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries, a variation of the hat. + + Image:Ski example4.jpg|Skis employed in Freestyle '''[[competition]]''' '''[[events]]''' where the principal source of motive power is '''[[gravity]]'''. To assist with directional and speed control, the edges of the running surface are constructed from hard materials and sealed into the ski. + + Image:Alpine Ski Characteristics sm.png|'''[[Side-cut]]''' The amount of 'waisting' in a ski, determined by the difference between the widest (at both ends of the ski) and the narrowest (in the mid-section) points of a ski. See also '''[[waist]]'''. '''[[Shovel]]''' From the widest point of the front section of the ski, known as the shoulder, to the '''[[ski tip]]'''. '''[[Tail]]''', this refers to the rear end of the Ski opposite the nose or '''[[ski tip]]'''. + + Image:Skis salomon.jpg|A '''[[ski]]''' is a long, flat device worn on the foot designed to help the wearer slide smoothly over '''[[snow]]'''. Originally intended as an aid to travel in snowy regions, they are now mainly used for recreational and sporting purposes. + + Image:Ski poles.jpg|The '''[[ski pole]]''' is a sports article whose function should aid the skier, facilitate balance and, if necessary, enable stopping. The national and international guidelines and norms establish the minimum requirements for ski pole tips, grips, shaft, '''[[baskets]]''', straps, length, etc. Due to risk of injury, metal baskets are not permitted. + + Image:Ski Sidecut.PNG|'''[[Ski tip]]''' refers to the front end of the '''[[Ski]]'''. + + Image:Skistopperopen.jpg|The '''[[ski stopper]]''' is a catching apparatus for skis, whose function is to stop or bring to a standstill the loose ski following the release of the safety binding within the intermediate area of the skiers fall. + + Image:Ski boot upper.png|'''[[Power strap]]''' A strap with velcro, that tightens the upper part of the '''[[Ski boot]]'''. + + Image:LANGE BOOT.jpg|'''[[Ski boots]]''' are robust footwear developed especially for skiing, offering protection against jolts and bumps as well as injury from ski edges and other external causes. The ski boot encloses the foot firmly, while at the same time allowing the movement necessary for skiing techniques, in that the ankle has the room it needs to move, but at the same time allowing the transfer of every steering movement completely to the ski. + + Image:Boot characteristics.png|'''[[Toe and Heel Lug]]''' The portions of the '''[[ski boot]]''' shell’s sole that interface with a '''[[ski binding]]'''; must meet industry standards for size; often replaceable in the event of wear. + + Image:Ski Boot parts.png|'''[[Tongue]]''' Most '''[[ski boots]]''' offer two overlapped tongues, inner and outer, to provide great support, stability and comfort. + + + ---- ----

##  A

Access Route means an access by way of dedicated or gazetted highway, easement or right of way, whether existing or which the Developer is required by Government Agencies or Regulatory Authorities to provide in the Controlled Recreation Area, to Parking Facilities and Improvements.

Aerial Tramway An aerial tramway is a special type of aerial transport, usually, we know it like ropeway or cable car, and sometimes erroneously called as a gondola. Aerial tramway is a aerial system, the passenger cabins are connected by a one or more fixed cables. The fixed cables give support for the cabins. The ropes are solidly connected to the tramway. The aerial tramway is elevated or transported by the support cables. The haulage cable is generally driven by an electric motor and being connected to the cabins, moves them up or down the mountain.

All Seasons Resort All Seasons Resort means a resort that provides for the development of single or multi-season recreational activities and facilities and the development of overnight accommodation as an essential associated land use.

Apex The point during a turn at which half of the entire direction change that the turn will produce has been completed.

Anti-Rollback A mechanical system which prevents the weight of passengers on a lift from making the lift roll backwards in the event of engine or gearbox failure. Some modern lifts are designed to run in reverse for special purposes.

Average Grade This is the average slope gradient (in percent) of the terrain under the length of the ski lift, from top terminal to bottom terminal.

Average Width This is the average width of the entire trail, from top to bottom. This may be determined by field measurements, or by calculation utilizing the given trail acreage and slope length (i.e., acreage x 43,560ft/slope length).

##  B

Backcountry Areas outside of Controlled Recreation Areas and not considered to be front country.

Base Area means that part of the Controlled Recreation Area shown or defined as the base area in the Resort, as amended and endorsed with approval of the Regulatory Authorities from time to time.

Base Area Design Particular consideration should be given to the relationship of the base area to the mountain facilities. Upon arrival at the ski area, skiers should be able to move directly from parking or other arrival points, through ticketing or rental locations, to the base of the ski lifts. Walking distance and vertical differential between the base area facilities and lifts should be minimized in an effort to move skiers directly onto the mountain. Vehicle, pedestrian, and skier circulation should be coordinated to create a safe and pleasant base area environment.

Balanced Resort Capacity (BRC) is the optimum number of visitors that can utilize a resort’s facilities per day in such a way that their recreational expectations are being met while the integrity of the site’s physical and sociological environment is maintained on a year–round basis.

Base Elevation The elevation of the base of the mountain (typically where the lowest lift starts).

Base Lands Slope Analysis An evaluation of the base landstopography in terms of slope gradient,which determines its ability to support base area facilities, village development, auxiliary facilities, and residential development. Typically,the slope gradients for base area development are broken into categories up to a maximum of 40% slope.

Basket: Typically round or star-shaped plastic piece located at the bottom end of a ski pole. Their primary purpose is to keep your poles from pushing too deep into the snow.

Bed Unit (BU) – means public or private overnight accommodation for one person in the Base Area (which unit is also commonly referred to as a "pillow" in the ski resort industry.)

Boot liner soft inner boot in ski boots.

Boot shell hard plastic boot coating

Bullwheel is a large wheel on which a wire rope turns, such as in a chair lift. In that application, the bullwheel that is attached to the prime mover is called the drive bullwheel, with the other known as the return bullwheel.

##  C

Camber The curve built into the main body of a ski to allow an even distribution of the skier's mass over the whole ski in contact with the snow. A soft-cambered ski will exhibit an even distribution, whilst a stiffer or harder-cambered ski is constructed so that the mid-section (or wax pocket) of the ski is held above the surface of the snow except when it is being heavily weighted.

Cant (1) The angle of boot bottom with ski viewed from the front. (2) The lateral angle of the boot in relation to the ski; often confused with cuff-alignment (the adjustment of cuff angle). Boots can be canted inward or outward, usually by grinding the sole at an angle, to give a skier better access to all four ski edges.

Capacity Analysis and Design Comfortable Carrying Capacity (CCC) is defined as an optimal level of utilization for the ski area (the number of visitors that can be accommodated at any given time) which guarantees a pleasant recreational experience, while at the same time preserving the quality of the environment. The accurate estimation of the CCC of a mountain is a complex issue and is the single most important planning criterion for the resort. Given proper identification of the mountain’s true capacity, all other related skier service facilities can be planned, such as base lodge seating, mountain restaurant requirements, sanitary facilities, parking, and other skier services. The CCC figure is based on a comparison of the uphill hourly capacity of the lift system to the downhill capacity of the trail system, taking into account the typical amount of ertical terrain desired by skiers of varying ability levels.

CARDINAL PLANES Sagittal, transverse and frontal planes.

Cat Tracks: Relatively flat paths used by Snowcats to move around a mountain. These are often used by skiers and snowboarders as well to reach different areas within a resort.

Carrier A generic term for the device on or in which customers ride. They can be chairs, gondola cabins, tram cabins, T-bars, etc.

Carrier Spacing This is the distance in feet or meters between each guest carrier (chair, gondola cabin).

Centrifugal force The force produced when an body rotates around the centre of its orbit. A skier will notice this when turning, in the form of an outward force away from the centre of the radius of the turn.

Centripetal force The opposing force to that of the centrifugal force. This must be applied by the skier to maintain balance and counteract centrifugal force when turning.

Chair Lift The chairlifts are a type of aerial lift, more exactly known as an elevated passenger ropeway. The chairlift consists of a continuously circulating steel cable strung in a loop between two end terminals and generally over intermediate towers.

Chord length The distance between the two bits of the ski touching the ground (the shovel and the tail) when the ski is lying on a flat surface. This is the distance usually used to denote a ski’s length. They used to be made in 5cm increments but now skis come in all sizes.

Cold Bed A classification of bed units that refers to infrequent occupancy, typically private accommodation, not available for short term rent either through covenants placed on the property, or owner choice.

Compressors are mechanical devices that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. They produce the compressed air for snowmaking. Water is forced through the nozzles under pressure and mixed with the compressed air.

Commercial Bed a bed unit that is available in the rental pool for nightly value assessment by an independent appraiser.

Controlled Recreation Area the use and access the resort developer / operator “controls”, designed to facilitate the resort development.

Crossarm The horizontal arm on top of a tower, to which the sheave wheels are attached.

Corresponding Base Area Phase in reference to a Phase or Mountain Phase, means the Base Area Phase included in or accompanying the same Phase.

Corresponding Mountain Phase in reference to a Phase or Base Area Phase, means the Mountain Phase included in or accompanying the same Phase.

Cuff: The top of the boot, wrapping around the ankle and lower leg to provide support and stability.

##  D

Downhill turning Making a downhill turn towards the fall line, and thus increasing the angle of descent, and the speed.

Destination Mountain Resort hast the criteria or features: Serves local,regional and destination enthusiasts with an emphasis on catering to destination needs and services. Offers a unique and truly special mountain experience. Provides a wide range of tourist facilities, given that their guests are usually there for a total resort experience where lift serviced skiing and snowboarding (although still the cornerstone activities) are no longer the only attractions. International airport within a two to three hour drive. Significant bed base in close proximity to lifts and trails at the resort, including publicly available commercial beds (approximately 40-60 percent in close proximity to the ski lifts and trails and other resort amenities), private bed subdivisions (approximately 30-50 percent), and resident restricted employee housing (approximately 10-20 percent).

Detachable Grip: The grip is able to open and close during regular operation allowing carriers to detach from the line and travel at a different speed. Detachable grips allow a greater line speed to be used, usually twice that of a fixed grip chair. There is a limit to how fast passengers can load a lift; a lift moving at greater than 2.5 m/s is very difficult to load, and a load interval of less than 5 seconds forces passengers to rush, and creates potential misload situations.

Detachable Chairlift The High Speed chairlift, also, we know it like Detachable chairlift is a special type of aerial lift, which, like a chairlift, consists of numerous chairs that are connected to a constantly moving steel cable that is strung between two terminals over intermediate towers. They are now commonplace at even the smallest of ski areas. The difference between one detachable chairlift and Standard chairlift is the speed. Detachable chairlifts are far faster than their fixed-grip brethren. Because the cable is usually moving faster than most skiers would be able to get on and off the chair, the chairs must be taken off the cable and slowed down substantially to allow patrons to get on and off.

DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is that country's ISO member body.

Return to General Definitions

Down-Line The side of the lift that the haul rope goes down the hill.

Drive Terminal The terminal which houses the motor, gearbox, auxiliary engine and drive and safety circuitry. It can be at either the top or the bottom of the lift ("top drive," "bottom drive.") A top drive lift is slightly more energy efficient than a bottom drive lift, but requires the ski area to run electric service to the summit, which can be very costly.

##  E

Edging Putting the skis on their edge by angulating. The radius of the arc formed by just an edged ski is greater than a carved ski as there is no substantial reverse camber involved.

Effective Edge This is the length of metal edge on the Skis which touches the Snow. It is the effective part which is used to make a turn. The Effective Edge is in contact with the Snow when the Ski is in a carved turn. A longer Effective Edge makes for a more stable, controlled ride. On the other hand, a shorter Effective Edge makes a looser, easier turning Ski.

Environmentally sensitive areas so designated include wetlands, steep slopes, waterways, underground water recharge areas, shores, natural plant and animal habitats, and other landforms that are easily disturbed by development.

##  F

Fan guns are one of the two basic types of snowmaking apparatus. They require electricity to power a fan and a hose with a spray/mist attachment. The hose sprays a mist and fans propels the mist into the air to achieve the hang time. Fan guns have anywhere from 12 to 360 water nozzles on a ring that the fan blows through on the front of the gun. These banks can be shut on or off by valves. The valves are either manual, manual electric, or automatic electric (controlled by a computer).

Footbed The removable platform inside the liner of the boots on which the foot rests. Custom footbeds are those molded by a bootfitter to conform to the shape of the skier’s sole for better fit and more precise energy transfer.

Fixed Grip: The grip is fixed on the line; it should not move during regular operation.

Front country is composed of outdoor areas that are easily accessible by vehicle and mostly visited by day users. Developed campgrounds are also included in the front country arena. Front country locations tend to be more crowded and attract a wider range of visitor than backcountry.

Funicular A funicular uses the technology of an elevator, it have a cable pulling a car up and the technology of a railroad, a car on a track. Created in the 15th century as a way of getting people and things up steep hillsides, the funicular now is more likely to carry skiers to the top of a mountain. In the United States, they are often referred to as incline railways. The common trains could never travel up such a steep incline because the steel train wheels don't have enough traction against steel rails. Trains that do climb mountains go up tracks that spiral around the mountain or go through many switchbacks.

Funitel is a type of aerial lift, generally used to transport skiers. The name funitel is a portmanteau between the French words funiculaire and telepherique. Funitels have not only been used as a means to transport skiers; there is one used to transport finished cars between different areas of a factory. Recently, more and more funitels have been added to ski areas.

##  G

Glacier is a perennial mass of ice which moves over land. A glacier forms in locations where the mass accumulation of snow and ice exceeds ablation over many years. The word glacier comes from French via the Vulgar Latin glacia, and ultimately from Latin "glacies" meaning ice.

Grooming: The most common form of trail maintenance, done to spread new snow and to smooth over bumps, icy patches and other obstacles. To groom, tractors known as Snowcats drag giant rakes over the snow; on steeper slopes, winches are used to drag rakes up the incline.

Gondola The gondola lift is a certain type of aerial lift, its second name is cable car or aerial lift, consists of a long steel cable hooked to two turning points, with a number of passenger cabins carried along by the cable. For longer stretches, a number of supports are placed between the two main points to hold the cable up and provide additional stability. An electric bullwheel pulls the cable through, bringing the gondolas along.

Grip The mechanism by which the carrier is attached to the haul rope. Grips can be either fixed, meaning that the grip is clamped into a precise location and remains there, or detachable, meaning that the grip contains a complex system of springs and clamps which allow it to be automatically attached or detached to the haul rope in the terminals.

Guidance rail is used on a high speed detachable lifts have to stabilize the carrier as it enters and moves around the terminal.

##  H

Handle Tow Lift A power-driven conveyor, usually with attached tow bars, used to carry skiers to the top of a trail or slope. Also called ski tow.

Haul Rope A wire rope which moves the carrier up the hill. In modern monocable design, it also supports the weight of a carrier and its passengers.

Hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of scarp slope without a well-defined summit.

Hold down assembly An assembly of sheaves that hold down the haul rope. Also called depression assembly.

Horizontal Length This is the length of the ski lift, from top terminal to bottom terminal, as measured on the mapping (i.e., a two-dimensional measurement).

Hot Bed A classification of bed units (hotel room or suite) which refers to a frequently occupied, paid lodging on a short-term basis.

Hourly Capacity This is the number of guests trips (one ride for one guest = one guest trip)per hour that a ski lift can accommodate.

##  I

In-Line Tower Any lift tower which is not also a drive or return terminal. Towers are typically numbered, which makes them handy landmarks.

Inside Edge 1. In The ski edge that is innermost in a turn (EU usage).2. The big toe side of the ski (US usage).

##  L

Lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of landform or terrain feature; that is, it is not global). Another definition is a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size that is surrounded by land. On Earth a body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, not part of the ocean, is larger and deeper than a pond.

Last: A boot maker’s term for the interior shape of a ski boot.

Lasted Liner: A ski boot term used to describe the best type of liner constructed around a mold of the actual foot size for an improved fit.

Lateral Upper-cuff Adjustment: An adjustment on some ski boots that allows the user to shift the upper boot. Useful for bowlegged or knock-kneed people who need to adjust their upper boot to the angle of their lower legs.

Lift Line Speed: The speed in meters per second or feet per minute that a lift can run.

Lift Capacity: Number of persons or passengers a lift can transport per hour.

Lift Design Ski lifts should be placed to serve the available ski terrain in the most efficient manner, while considering a myriad of factors such as wind conditions, round-trip skiing and access needs, interconnectability between other lifts and trails, and the need for irculatory space at the lower and upper terminal sites. Additionally, it should be understood that the vertical rise and length of ski lifts for a particular mountain are the primary measures of overall attractiveness and marketability of a ski area.

Lift lines, on ski lifts, is the number of sliders waiting in line at each lift. This is a function of the uphill hourly capacity of the lift and the assumed length of wait time at each lift. The number of guests on each lift is the product of the number of carriers on the uphill line and the capacity of the lift’s carriers.

Lift ticket is an identifier usually attached to a skier's outerwear that indicates they have paid and can ride on the ski lift up a mountain to ski. Lift tickets can be purchased for various periods of time ranging from a season pass to a daily ticket. Tickets may also be restricted to various types of lifts. Tickets can be subject to revocation for serious infractions of established rules.

Lift tower is any structure which either supports or compresses the haul rope. Most towers today are "tubes," or pipe. Towers on older lifts, and also very tall towers such as those used on trams, are typically constructed in lattice fashion. Towers are anchored to massive blocks of concrete, which are either buried in soil or pinned to rock. Lift manufacturers and ski areas also consider the terminals at either end of a ski lift to be towers.

Loading Area The area between the lift maze and the lift portal (the last stage of the load terminal before you're out on the line).

##  M

Magic Carpet The Magic Carpet Ski Lift is a new conveyor lift product which provides a high capacity surface lift with a friendly design of virtually any length and for any rider. A magic carpet resembles a conveyor belt in which skiers board at the bottom with skis facing forwards, and are pulled uphill by the moving belt. Keeping snow off of the belt can be a problem.

Maze The area, as part of the Loading Area, in which skiers and snowboarders gather while waiting to board a ski lift. Mazes are designed to optimize Chair Lift loading. Skiers and riders often call mazes lift lines.

Maximum Grade This is the maximum gradient (in percent) occurring anywhere on the trail.

Midstation A structure somewhere on the line of the Ski lift, between the top and bottom terminals, which allows skiers to either load, unload or both.

Mountain master planning process emphasizes the importance of balancing recreational facility development. The size of the skier service functions must be adequate for the CCC of the mountain. The true capacity of the overall ski area is determined by the lowest of the limiting factors. The limiting factor of the ski area can either be trail capacity, lift capacity, support facility capacity, or parking capacity. The future development of a ski area should be designed and coordinated to maintain a balance between skier demand, ski area capacity (lifts and trails), and the supporting equipment and facilities (e.g., grooming machines, day lodge services and facilities, utility infrastructure, access, and parking).

##  O

Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the formation and relief of mountains and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain. Orography (also known as oreography, orology or oreology) falls within the broader discipline of geomorphology.

Overlap Boots A traditional style of ski boot that closes in front with overlapping flaps and a number of buckles.

##  P

Pole Grip: The handle on a ski pole.

Platter Lift A platter lift, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers uphill. The lift have an aerial steel cable loop running over a series of wheels, powered by an engine at the upper end. Hanging from the rope overhead are equally-spaced vertical cables attached to a plastic button or platter that is placed between the skiers legs and pulls the skier uphill. Snowboarders place the platter behind the top of their front leg and hold it in position with their hands.

Private Bed Unit a bed unit only available for private use.

Public Bed Unit a bed unit available for public rental.

##  R

Railed The ski base should not be concave, or “Railed”, with the edges higher than the base. A concave base or railed edges encourages the equipment to run straight and impairs the turning ability of the equipment.

Rated Uphill Capacity The manufacturer's rated number of passengers per hour (pph) a lift can transport to the top of the ski lift. An area's hourly capacity is the sum of the individual lifts.

Regional Mountain Resort The Regional Mountain Resort has the following criteria or features: Serves both local and regional populations. Is entirely focused on regional use and local needs. Has a limited number of beds,the majority of which are privately owned, low-key developments (i.e. cabins and cottages as compared to hotels and second homes.

Regulatory Authorities means all federal, municipal, local, regional or other regulatory approving authority or agency having jurisdiction over all or any part of the Development other than Government Agencies and includes Local Government.

Restraining bar or safety bar, help to hold passengers in the chair. If equipped, each chair has a retractable bar, sometimes with attached foot rests. In most configurations, a passenger may reach up and behind their head, grab the bar or a handle, and pull the restraint forward and down. Once the bar has rotated sufficiently, gravity assists positioning the bar to its down limit. Before disembarking, the bar must be rotated up, out of the way.

Resort is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company.

Reverse Camber The arc formed in a ski by applying pressure down on it from above. The more reverse camber is applied to a ski, the shorter becomes the radius of the arc. Short radius turns are made for short turns and long radius turns for long turns. See carving

Riparian areas Pertaining to anything connected with or immediately adjacent to the banks of a stream, river, wetlands or flowing watercourse.

Rocker is an innovation in skis, where the tip and/or tail of skis are shaped with an early upward curve that resembles the arc at the base of a rocking chair. In soft snow, rocker helps tips and tails avoid sinking. This means skiers catch edges less often, turning is easier and balance is improved. Essentially, rocker serves to pre-bend a ski into an ideal shape for soft and variable snow, giving the skier a more predictable platform.

Rope Speed This is the speed that a ski lift can transport guests, as expressed in number of feet per minute or meters per second.

Rope Tow A ski tow, also called rope tow or handle tow, is a mechanised system for pulling skiers and snowboarders uphill. In its most basic form, it consists of a long rope loop running through a pulley at the bottom and one at the top, powered by an engine at one end. Passengers grab hold of the rope and are pulled along while standing on their skis or snowboards and sliding up the hill, with some variations having simple fixed handles.

Rotation This can refer to the upper body rotating on an axis running straight down through the head, or a rotation of the thighs, either singly (as in a snowplough turn) or roughly at the same time (as in a plough parallel/parallel). Because skis are now short a rotation of the thighs will easily turn the ski as long as it is moving with minimal friction.

##  S

Setting an Edge Unweighting a ski by a sudden down movement at the end of a turn. The weight on the ski then increases and brakes it against the snow in preparation for the next turn. An edge set is used in short turns The angle of an edge set in relation to the fall linewill vary according to the degree a skier wants to brake eg: on a very steep slope the angle would be 90 degrees to the fall line, and on a blue run perhaps only 30 degrees.

Shoulder The widest point of the front section of the ski.

Shovel From the widest point of the front section of the ski, known as the shoulder, to the ski tip

Side-cut The amount of 'waisting' in a ski, determined by the difference between the widest (at both ends of the ski) and the narrowest (in the mid-section) points of a ski. See also waist

Side slipping A slipping motion down the hill with the skis pointed across the slope. This motion may be at an angle to the fall-line or directly on it.

Six degrees of freedom (6DoF) refers to motion of a rigid body in three-dimensional space, namely the ability to move forward/backward, up/down, left/right (translation in three perpendicular coordinate axis) combined with rotation about three perpendicular axes (pitch, yaw, roll). As the movement along each of the three axes is independent of each other and independent of the rotation about any of these axes, the motion indeed has six Degrees of freedom.

Ski lift can refer to many different types of uphill transport, in three main classes: Aerial lifts: including: Aerial tramways, Funifors, Funitels, Gondola lifts, Telemix, Detachable Chair lifts; Chairlifts, Surface lifts, including: T-bars, J-bars, Platter/Button/Poma lifts, Rope tows & handle tows, Magic carpets, Cable railways, including: Funiculars

Ski resort is a resort developed for skiing and other winter sports. In Europe a ski resort is a town or village in a ski area - a mountainous area, where there are ski trails and supporting services such as hotels and other accommodation, restaurants, equipment rental and a ski lift system. In North America it is more common for ski areas to exist well away from towns, and the term ski resort is used for a destination resort, often purpose-built and self-contained, where skiing is the main activity. The term ski station is also used, particularly in Europe, for a skiing facility which is not located in or near a town or village.

Skier Rider Ability Level The following gradients were used to determine the skier ability level of the mountain terrain:

Ski base is the part of the ski that makes contact with the snow and surface.

Ski trail capacity is a function of the acceptable density of users per hectare, rated by skier-skill class.

Slope Length This is the length of the lift, from top terminal to bottom terminal, as measured on the ground (i.e., a three-dimensional measurement).

Slopestyle is a type of winter sporting event where the goal is to perform the most difficult tricks while getting the highest amplitude off of jumps, with an emphasis on performing different types of tricks instead of doing one great trick repeatedly. It originated as a snowboarding competition format, but there are now many sports that are considered to have this style of competition, of which skiing and snowboarding are two of the most common.

Slider Visit (Winter) Sometimes referred to as "skier visit", one person visiting a winter recreation area for all or part of a day or night for the purpose of skiing, snowboarding, snowblading, etc. This is the total number of lift tickets issued. Slider visits include a person holding a full-day, half-day, night, complimentary, adult, child, season, or any other ticket type that gives them the use of an area's lifts and trails.

Snow Slider Refers to a person that slides down the hill using skis, a snowboard, mono ski, snowblades, Big Foot skis, snow runners, or other devices attached to their feet.

Snowmaking system A self-contained system for efficient wide-area coverage of downhill and cross-country ski trails, toboggan runs, jump hills, etc. The main components of a snowmaking installation: snow guns, snowmaking pond, air and water lines, pumping station, water cooling systems, compressed air station, docking points, electronic control and monitoring systems.

##  T

T-bar Lift The T-bar lift, is a mechanised system for transporting skiers, snowboarders, etc. uphill. It is only used in low capacity situations in large resorts and small local slopes servicing skiers numbered in the dozens rather than in the hundreds or thousands.  The T-Bar lift have an aerial steel cable loop running over a series of wheels, powered by an engine at one end. Hanging from the rope are a series of vertical recoiling cables attached to a T-shaped bar, about a meter in both dimensions, that is placed behind the skier's or snowboarder's buttocks. This pulls the passenger uphill while they slide across the ground. A single T-bar transports a maximum of two people per T-bar unit.

Tail The back of a ski.

Terrain Pod A contiguous area of land deemed suitable for ski lift and trail development due to its slope gradients, exposure and fall line characteristics.

Tillers are mounted on the rear of a grooming tractor and is driven hydrostatically. A tiller typically requires deep snow conditions and is used to break up compacted snow surface, to reduce snow and ice chunks, and to mix old and new snow. The tiller itself is similar to a garden roto-tiller and consists of a rotating shaft (cutter bar), which has multiple tines that are typically three to five inches (7.6 to 12.7 cm) in length that condition the snow when operated at a high RPM, and a plastic comb or “snow finisher” The tractor’s horsepower must be sufficiently large to operate the tiller.

Top Elevation This is the elevation at the top terminal of the ski lift.

Top terminal The terminal at the other end of the ski lift from the drive or bottom terminal.

Torque The twisting movement of a ski. The amount it will twist along its length will affect its performance. Generally, the stiffer the torque, the higher will be the ski’s performance.

Tower guns The other basic type of snow gun in addition to the fan gun is the snow tower or tower gun. Tower guns are used primarily to cover narrower strips of trail in more wind-protected locations.

Trail means an alpine ski run, cross country ski trail, or other trail shown in or contemplated by the Resort Master Plan.

Trail designation system that categorizes ski and snowboard slopes by difficulty has been set up since the 1960s, in mountain resorts throughout North America (and much of the world). It uses green circles, blue squares and black diamonds to indicate the difficulty of the slope.

Trail System Each trail must have generally consistent grade within a given ability level to provide an interesting and challenging ski experience for the ability level for which the trail is designed. Optimum trail widths should vary depending upon topographic conditions and the caliber of the skier being served. The trail network must minimize cross-traffic and should provide the full range of ability levels consistent with market demand. The trails must be designed and constructed to minimize off fallline conditions and to avoid bottlenecks and convergence zones, which might produce skier congestion.

Turning Radius: A function of sidecut, the turning radius equals the natural circle that a pair of skis or a snowboard can make on edge. The more dramatic the sidecut, the tighter the turning radius.

##  U

Unweighting Turning a ski by taking weight off it. An unweighting movement is generally executed by pivoting the tails of the skis around the tips although occasionally a ski can be pivoted around the centre (as in the Wedel turn or learning in the bumps).

Upper body The torso

Uphill turning Making a downhill turn away from the fall line, and thus decreasing the angle of descent.

##  V

Vertical Demand is the amount of vertical terrain that skiers/riders can be expected to ski over the course of a day (typically a six to seven hour period). This figure is calculated separately for each skill class. The average vertical demand has been increasing for all skill levels.

Vertical rise This is the difference in elevation between the top and bottom terminals of a ski lift.

Vertical Transport Feet Per Hour (000) - (VTF/Hour) - The number of people lifted 1,000 vertical feet per hour (vertical rise of a lift, times the lift capacity per hour, divided by 1,000). An area's total VTF, is the sum of VTF for all ski lifts.

##  W

Warm Bed A classification of bed units that refers to frequent occupancy, typically accommodation that encompasses public, rental bed units that are available for short-term rental through covenants placed on the property.

Waist, the narrowest point of the ski.

Weight The application of weight on to a ski is gauged by the pressure applied by the soles of the feet. As a general rule weight is kept on the middle of the foot, and seldom moves more than an inch or two either backwards or forwards to get the desired result. The distribution of weight between the two skis can vary from all on one ski to an equal spread between the two.

Wire rope is a type of rope which consists of several strands of metal wire laid (or 'twisted') into a helix. Initially wrought iron wires were used, but today steel is the main material used for wire ropes.

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