Mountain

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Mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill.
Mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill.

Mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. The adjective montane is used to describe mountainous areas and things associated with them. The study of mountains is called Orography.

Mountain environments cover some 27 per cent of the world’s land surface, and directly support the 22 per cent of the world’s people who live within mountain regions. Lowland people also depend on mountain environments for a wide range of goods and services, including water, energy, timber, biodiversity maintenance, and opportunities for recreation and spiritual renewal.


Contents

Class of Mountains

  • 1 elevation > 4 500 m
  • 2 elevation 3 500 – 4 500 m
  • 3 elevation 2 500 – 3 500 m
  • 4 elevation 1 500 – 2 500 m and slope ‡ 2°
  • 5 elevation 1 000 – 1 500 m and slope ‡ 5° or local elevation range (7 km radius) > 300 m
  • 6 elevation 300 – 1 000 m and local elevation range (7 km radius) > 300 m
  • 7 isolated inner basins and plateaus less than 25 km2 in extent that are surrounded by mountains but do not themselves meet criteria 1-6


“Seven Summits”, the highest peaks on every continent

Continent Peak Elevation (meters)

  • Asia Mt. Everest/Sagarmatha/Chomolangma 8,850
  • South America Mt. Aconcagua 6,960
  • North America Mt. McKinley/Denali 6,194
  • Africa Mt. Kilimanjaro 5,963
  • Europe Mt. Elbrus 5,642
  • Australia/Oceania Mt. Puncak Jaya 5,030
  • Antarctica Mt. Vinson Massif 4,897


Mountain Glossary

  • Cirque A steep-walled mountain basin which usually forms the blunt end of a valley. (French for "circus.")
  • Col A dip in a ridge that forms a small, high pass.
  • Couloir An open, steep gully, usually containing ice or snow.
  • River A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea, or another river.
  • Saddle A high pass between two peaks.
  • Snow line The lowest elevation area of a perennial snow field on high terrain, such as a mountain range. The climatic snow line is the point above which snow and ice cover the ground throughout the year. The actual snow line may seasonally be significantly lower.
  • Tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond the tree line, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures, insufficient air pressure, or lack of moisture). At the tree line, tree growth is often very stunted, with the last trees forming low, densely matted bushes.
  • Valley a valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep river valley may be called a canyon or gorge.

Also see

Reference

  1. Wikipedia see Mountain [1]
  2. Mountain Watch Defining Mountain Regions [2]

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