# Mogul Jump Definitions

##  Basic Definitions

• Balance Point: Is where the forces on the body are equal to the forces created by the dynamic body actions
• Vertical Axis: Runs from the top of the body to the feet, through the balance point.
• Tilted; One or more of the axis of rotation are less than 90 degrees to the direction of the rotation.
• Direction of Travel; The primary direction of travel is in the horizontal plane and thru the balance point. There are lateral movements around the body segments during flexion and extension.
• Rotation; is a movement of an object in a circular motion. A three-dimensional object rotates around a line called an axis. If the axis of rotation is within the body, the body is said to rotate upon itself, or spin—which implies relative speed and perhaps free-movement with angular momentum.
• Degrees of Rotation; The number of rotations or part of rotations around an axis expressed in degree of rotation.
• Primary Axis; the body actions to rotation on the first axis
• Grabs: With the body action of a flexion, a section or part of the ski is grabbed by the hand or hands.
• Holds: With the body action of a flexion, a section or part of the ski or skis is grabbed by one or more hands and then held for a duration.
• Tuck: A body action of flexion between the upper body and lower body with the knees coming towards the chest.
• Pike: Is a body action that starts from an extended position then there is a flexion at the waist, with legs being keep straight.
• Layout: The body is fully extended straight.
• Free position: Could also be called the ‘puck’ position which is in-between a layout and a tuck position mainly seen in off axis rotations
• Twisting: Are rotations around the primary and or the secondary axis. All twists (including multiple twists in one somersault) are performed in a layout position.

##  Back Flips

• Back Flip: One complete rotation in the backwards direction around the horizontal axis.
• Back Tuck: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and backwards which starts a primary rotation in the horizontal axis. The upper and lower body then extend. There is a flexion at the waist between the upper body and lower body to the tuck position. The body rotations backwards a total of 360 degrees, then the skiers extends and prepares for the landing.
• Back Layout: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and backwards which starts a primary rotation in the horizontal axis. The upper and lower body then extend. The body rotations backwards a total of 360 degrees, then the skiers flexes and prepares for the landing.

## Flips with Twists

• Back Full: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and backwards which starts a primary rotation in the horizontal axis. An additional axis of rotation on the vertical axis is initiated with the rotation of the upper body. The upper and lower body then extend straight. There is a full extension at the waist between the upper body and lower body continue on both axis. The body rotations backwards a total of 360 degrees on the primary axis and rotates 360 degrees on the secondary axis, then the skiers extends and prepares for the landing.
• Back Double Full: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and backwards which starts a primary rotation in the horizontal axis. An additional axis of rotation on the vertical axis is initiated with the rotation of the upper body. The upper and lower body then extend straight. There is a full extension at the waist between the upper body and lower body continue on both axis. The body rotations backwards a total of 360 degrees on the horizontal axis and 720 degrees on the vertical secondary axis, then the skiers extends and prepares for the landing.

##  Front Flips

6005.10 Front Flip : One complete rotation in the forward direction around the horizontal axis with a straight or a tucked body position. A complete forward rotation in which a person rotates heels over head.

• Front Tuck: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and forwards which starts a primary rotation in the horizontal axis. The upper and lower body then flex. There is a flexion at the waist between the upper body and lower body to the tuck position. The body rotations forwards a total of 360 degrees, then the skiers extends and prepares for the landing.

##  Spins in the Lateral Axis

6005.12 Side Flip: One complete rotation, in the sideways direction around the lateral axis

• Loop: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and sideways which starts a primary rotation in the lateral axis. The upper and lower body then extends either straight on into the free position and rotates. The body rotations a total of 360 degrees, then the skier flexes and prepares for the landing
• Loop Full: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and sidways which starts a primary rotation in the lateral axis. The upper then also starts to rotates on the secondary vertical axis, then extends into the free position. The body rotations a total of 360 degrees in the lateral axis and 360 degrees in the vertical axis. Then the skier flexes and prepares for the landing.

##  Spins in the Vertical Axis

• 360: One complete rotation around the vertical axis with a straight body position.
• 360: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and vertically which starts a primary rotation in the vertical axis. The upper and lower body then fully extends straight and rotates. The body rotations a total of 360 degrees, then the skier flexes and prepares for the landing.
• 720: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and vertically which starts a primary rotation in the vertical axis. The upper and lower body then fully extends straight and rotates. The body rotations a total of 720 degrees then the skier flexes and prepares for the landing.
• 1080: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both upwards and vertically which starts a primary rotation in the vertical axis. The upper and lower body then extends and rotates. The body rotations a total of 1080 degrees the skier then flexes and prepares for the landing.

## General Off Axis Jumps

• 7O: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both vertically and upwards or vertically and downwards which starts a tilted primary rotation off of the vertical axis. The upper body rotates in the direction of travel and lower body follows. Then the body extends into the free position and continues to rotate. The body rotations and rolls a total of 720 degrees. The skier then flexes and prepares for the landing.
• 7OP:While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both vertically and upwards or vertically and downwards which starts a tilted primary rotation off of the vertical axis. The upper body rotates in the direction of travel and lower body follows. A position is taken, like crossed skis. Then the body extends into the free position and continues to rotate. The body rotations and rolls a total of 720 degrees. The skier then flexes and prepares for the landing.
• D Spin: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both vertically, backwards and to the side which starts a tilted primary rotation off of the horizontal axis. The upper body leads and rotations on the vertical axis and comes below the horizontal plane, the lower body follows then extends into the free position and continues to rotates. The body rotations and rolls a total of 540 degrees. The skier then flexes and continues to rotate 180 degree out and prepares for the landing.

• Cork7: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both vertically, upwards and to the side which starts a tilted primary rotation off of the vertical axis. The upper body leads and lower body follows then extends into the free position and continues to rotates. The body rotations and rolls a total of 720 degrees. The skier then flexes and prepares for the landing.

##  Some General Definition of Different Off Axis Jumps

• Misty 7: It starts with forward rotation on the horizontal - diagonal axis (where the horizontal axis is primary axis and vertical axis is secondary axis) there is a full twist and half completed. Look for the rotation so that the head goes down and under while the hips go over the horizon.
• Rodeo 7: While moving in the horizontal plane the skier approaches the jump. The takeoff is initiated both vertically, upwards and to the side which starts a tilted primary rotation off of the vertical axis to 180 degrees and moves into the free position. (back is facing down hill) The upper body leads and lower body follows then continues to rotates 540 degrees. The skier then flexes and prepares for the landing.