Landform

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(''' Landform Gallery''')
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(''' Landform Gallery''')
 
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-==''' Landform Gallery'''==+==''' [[Landform Gallery]]'''==
<gallery> <gallery>
 +Image:Rhonegletscher.jpg|'''[[Alpine glaciers]]''' form on mountain slopes and are also known as mountain, niche or '''[[cirque glaciers]]'''. An Alpine glacier that fills a valley is referred to as a '''[[Valley glacier]]'''. Larger glaciers that cover an entire mountain, mountain chain or volcano are known as an '''[[ice cap]]''' or '''[[ice field]]'''.
 +
Image:Mountain-permafrost-patterns-and-temperature-gradients.jpg|'''[[Alpine permafrost]]''' (most '''[[permafrost]]''' is located in high latitudes (i.e. land in close proximity to the North and South poles)) may exist at high '''[[altitudes]]''' in much lower '''[[latitudes]]'''. Image:Mountain-permafrost-patterns-and-temperature-gradients.jpg|'''[[Alpine permafrost]]''' (most '''[[permafrost]]''' is located in high latitudes (i.e. land in close proximity to the North and South poles)) may exist at high '''[[altitudes]]''' in much lower '''[[latitudes]]'''.
 +
Image:Arete cirque horn.JPG|'''[[Arete]]''' a steep-sided, sharp-edged bedrock '''[[ridge]]''' formed by two '''[[glaciers]]''' eroding away on opposite sides of the '''[[ridge]]'''. Image:Arete cirque horn.JPG|'''[[Arete]]''' a steep-sided, sharp-edged bedrock '''[[ridge]]''' formed by two '''[[glaciers]]''' eroding away on opposite sides of the '''[[ridge]]'''.
 +
Image:Bergschrund.jpg|'''[[Bergschrund]]''' is a deep and often wide gap or '''[[crevasse]]''', or series of closely spaced crevasses, in '''[[ice]]''' or '''[[firn]]''' at or near the head of a '''[[valley glacier]]'''. A bergschrund separates the moving ice and snow from the relatively immobile ice and '''[[snow]]''' adhering to the '''[[headwall]]''' of a valley (or '''[[cirque]]'''). Image:Bergschrund.jpg|'''[[Bergschrund]]''' is a deep and often wide gap or '''[[crevasse]]''', or series of closely spaced crevasses, in '''[[ice]]''' or '''[[firn]]''' at or near the head of a '''[[valley glacier]]'''. A bergschrund separates the moving ice and snow from the relatively immobile ice and '''[[snow]]''' adhering to the '''[[headwall]]''' of a valley (or '''[[cirque]]''').
 +
 +Image:Snow Berm.jpg|'''[[Berm]]''' an artificial ridge or embankment or a narrow path: a ledge or narrow path along the top or bottom of a '''[[slope]]''', at the edge of a road, or along a canal.
 +
Image:Kjeragbolten-boulder.jpg|Kjeragbolten, a 5 m³ '''[[boulder]]''' wedged in a mountain crevasse by the edge of the Kjerag mountain[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kjerag] Image:Kjeragbolten-boulder.jpg|Kjeragbolten, a 5 m³ '''[[boulder]]''' wedged in a mountain crevasse by the edge of the Kjerag mountain[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kjerag]
 +
Image:Fajada in snow.jpg|Chaco and Fajada '''[[Butte]]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fajada_Butte] is located in northwestern New Mexico. Image:Fajada in snow.jpg|Chaco and Fajada '''[[Butte]]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fajada_Butte] is located in northwestern New Mexico.
-Image:Cirque mountain.jpg|A steep-walled '''[[mountain]]''' basin which usually forms the blunt end of a '''[[valley]]'''. (French for "circus.")+ 
-Image:Red Mountain Pass.jpg|In a range of '''[[hills]]''' or, especially, of '''[[mountains]]''', a pass (also gap, notch, '''[[col]]''',''' [[saddle]]''', hause, bwlch (Welsh), brennig or bealach (Gaelic)) is a path that allows the crossing of a '''[[mountain]]''' chain.+Image:Cirque mountain.jpg|'''[[Cirque]]''' is a steep-walled '''[[mountain]]''' basin which usually forms the blunt end of a '''[[valley]]'''. (French for "circus.")
 + 
 +Image:Red Mountain Pass.jpg|A Mountain Pass or '''[[Col]]''' is in a range of '''[[hills]]''' or, especially, of '''[[mountains]]''', a '''[[pass]]''' (also gap, notch, col,''' [[saddle]]''', hause, bwlch (Welsh), brennig or bealach (Gaelic) is a path that allows the crossing of a '''[[mountain]]''' chain..
 + 
Image:Snow lake cliff.PNG|'''[[Cliff]]''' is a significant vertical, or near vertical, '''[[rock]]''' exposure. Cliffs are formed as erosion landforms due to the processes of erosion and weathering that produce them. Cliffs are common on coasts, in '''[[mountainous]]''' areas, '''[[escarpments]]''' and along '''[[rivers]]'''. Image:Snow lake cliff.PNG|'''[[Cliff]]''' is a significant vertical, or near vertical, '''[[rock]]''' exposure. Cliffs are formed as erosion landforms due to the processes of erosion and weathering that produce them. Cliffs are common on coasts, in '''[[mountainous]]''' areas, '''[[escarpments]]''' and along '''[[rivers]]'''.
 +
 +Image:Snow cornice.jpg|'''[[Snow Cornice]]''' is a '''[[Snow drift]]''' feature that forms along a break in '''[[slope]]''', typically along ridgelines in exposed '''[[mountain]]''' areas. These can range from less than one meter to tens of meters in width and depth and from a few meters to more than a kilometer in length. Cornices can present serious hazards to mountain travelers including climbers, skiers, hikers, and snowmobilers.
 +
 +Image:Couloir.jpg|'''[[Couloir]]''' is an open, steep '''[[gully]]''', usually containing '''[[ice]]''' or '''[[snow]]'''. A couloir (from the French word meaning "passage" or "corridor,") is a deep '''[[gorge]]''' or '''[[gully]]''' formation found on the side of a '''[[mountain]]'''. A couloir may be a seam, scar, or fissure, or vertical [[crevasse]] in an otherwise '''[[solid]]''' '''[[mountain]]''' mass.
 +
Image:Crevasses-alpine-glacier.jpg|'''[[Crevasses]]''' cracks in the '''[[glacial]]''' '''[[ice]]'''. The upper 30 meters of '''[[glacial ice]]''' is somewhat brittle, and as the glacier flows, cracks develop. Crevasses rarely extend to depths below approximately 30 meters because the ice below that too plastic and the cracks close. Image:Crevasses-alpine-glacier.jpg|'''[[Crevasses]]''' cracks in the '''[[glacial]]''' '''[[ice]]'''. The upper 30 meters of '''[[glacial ice]]''' is somewhat brittle, and as the glacier flows, cracks develop. Crevasses rarely extend to depths below approximately 30 meters because the ice below that too plastic and the cracks close.
 +
Image:Glacial landscape.svg.png Image:Glacial landscape.svg.png
 +
Image:Blue Mountain Canada Aerial Shoot Ski Cross Inspection .jpg|'''[[Escarpment]]''' is a steep '''[[slope]]''' or long '''[[cliff]]''' that results from '''[[erosion]]''' or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing '''[[elevations]]'''. Image:Blue Mountain Canada Aerial Shoot Ski Cross Inspection .jpg|'''[[Escarpment]]''' is a steep '''[[slope]]''' or long '''[[cliff]]''' that results from '''[[erosion]]''' or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing '''[[elevations]]'''.
 +
Image:Foothills-going-to-Waterton-National-Park.JPG|'''[[Foothills]]''' are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a '''[[mountain range]]'''. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief '''[[hills]]''' to the adjacent topographically high '''[[mountains]]'''. Image:Foothills-going-to-Waterton-National-Park.JPG|'''[[Foothills]]''' are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a '''[[mountain range]]'''. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief '''[[hills]]''' to the adjacent topographically high '''[[mountains]]'''.
 +
Image:Columbia icefield-Canada.jpg|'''[[Glacier]]''' is a perennial mass of '''[[ice]]''' which moves over land. A '''[[glacier]]''' forms in locations where the mass accumulation of '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[ice]]''' exceeds '''[[ablation]]''' over many years. Columbia Icefields, Alberta Canada Image:Columbia icefield-Canada.jpg|'''[[Glacier]]''' is a perennial mass of '''[[ice]]''' which moves over land. A '''[[glacier]]''' forms in locations where the mass accumulation of '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[ice]]''' exceeds '''[[ablation]]''' over many years. Columbia Icefields, Alberta Canada
 +
Image:Airdrie Canada glacier erratic.jpg|'''[[Glacial erratic]]''' is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests. Image:Airdrie Canada glacier erratic.jpg|'''[[Glacial erratic]]''' is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests.
 +
Image:Columbia Icefield 2.jpg|'''[[Glaciation]]''' is a glacial period is an interval of time within an '''[[ice age]]''' that is marked by colder '''[[temperatures]]''' and '''[[glacier]]''' advances. (Columbia Icefields, Alberta Canada) Image:Columbia Icefield 2.jpg|'''[[Glaciation]]''' is a glacial period is an interval of time within an '''[[ice age]]''' that is marked by colder '''[[temperatures]]''' and '''[[glacier]]''' advances. (Columbia Icefields, Alberta Canada)
 +
Image:Glacial lake.JPG|'''[[Glacial lake]]''' is a lake with origins in a melted '''[[glacier]]'''. Image:Glacial lake.JPG|'''[[Glacial lake]]''' is a lake with origins in a melted '''[[glacier]]'''.
 +
Image:Base gully gros morne.jpg|'''[[Gully]]''' is a '''[[landform]]''' created by running '''[[water]]''' '''[[eroding]]''' sharply into '''[[soil]]''', typically on a hillside. Gullies resemble large ditches or small '''[[valleys]]''', but are metres to tens of metres in depth and width. Image:Base gully gros morne.jpg|'''[[Gully]]''' is a '''[[landform]]''' created by running '''[[water]]''' '''[[eroding]]''' sharply into '''[[soil]]''', typically on a hillside. Gullies resemble large ditches or small '''[[valleys]]''', but are metres to tens of metres in depth and width.
 +
Image:Hanging valley.jpg|'''[[Hanging Valley]]''': a valley eroded by a small tributary '''[[glacier]]''', such that the '''[[elevation]]''' of the '''[[valley]]''' floor is higher than the '''[[elevation]]''' of the '''[[valley]]''' floor that the hanging valley joins. The erosive power of glaciers is dictated by their size: the larger a glacier, the farther down into the landscape it can '''[[erode]]'''. Image:Hanging valley.jpg|'''[[Hanging Valley]]''': a valley eroded by a small tributary '''[[glacier]]''', such that the '''[[elevation]]''' of the '''[[valley]]''' floor is higher than the '''[[elevation]]''' of the '''[[valley]]''' floor that the hanging valley joins. The erosive power of glaciers is dictated by their size: the larger a glacier, the farther down into the landscape it can '''[[erode]]'''.
 +
Image:Hill.jpg|'''[[Hill]]''' is a '''[[landform]]''' that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of scarp slope without a well-defined '''[[summit]]'''. Image:Hill.jpg|'''[[Hill]]''' is a '''[[landform]]''' that extends above the surrounding terrain. Hills often have a distinct summit, although in areas with scarp/dip topography a hill may refer to a particular section of scarp slope without a well-defined '''[[summit]]'''.
 +
Image:Couloir and headwall.jpg|'''[[Headwall]]''' the steep back-wall of a '''[[cirque]]'''. Image:Couloir and headwall.jpg|'''[[Headwall]]''' the steep back-wall of a '''[[cirque]]'''.
 +
Image:Stockhorn Thun Switzerland.jpg|'''[[Horn]]''' a pyramid-shaped mountain '''[[peak]]''' created by several '''[[glaciers]]''' '''[[eroding]]''' away at different sides of the same '''[[mountain]]''' Image:Stockhorn Thun Switzerland.jpg|'''[[Horn]]''' a pyramid-shaped mountain '''[[peak]]''' created by several '''[[glaciers]]''' '''[[eroding]]''' away at different sides of the same '''[[mountain]]'''
 +
Image:Glaciers mountain terms.jpg|'''[[Glacier]]''' and '''[[Mountain]]''' terms Image:Glaciers mountain terms.jpg|'''[[Glacier]]''' and '''[[Mountain]]''' terms
 +
Image:Columbia Icefield-Saskatchewan Glacier.jpg|'''[[Ice field]]''' is an area less than '''50,000 km²''' (19,305 mile²) of ice often found in the colder '''[[climates]]''' and higher '''[[altitudes]]''' of the world where there is sufficient '''[[precipitation]]'''. It is an extensive area of interconnected '''[[valley]]''' '''[[glaciers]]''' from which the higher peaks rise as '''[[nunataks]]'''. Image:Columbia Icefield-Saskatchewan Glacier.jpg|'''[[Ice field]]''' is an area less than '''50,000 km²''' (19,305 mile²) of ice often found in the colder '''[[climates]]''' and higher '''[[altitudes]]''' of the world where there is sufficient '''[[precipitation]]'''. It is an extensive area of interconnected '''[[valley]]''' '''[[glaciers]]''' from which the higher peaks rise as '''[[nunataks]]'''.
 +
 +Image:Ice Fall.jpg|'''[[Ice Fall]]''': the '''[[ice]]''' equivalent of a waterfall. As ice flows over a drop-off, it may break apart and then reform at the base of the drop-off.
 +
Image:Lake Louise Canada.jpg|'''[[Lake]]''' (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of '''[[liquid]]''' on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of '''[[landform]]''' or terrain feature; that is, it is not global). Image:Lake Louise Canada.jpg|'''[[Lake]]''' (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature (or physical feature), a body of '''[[liquid]]''' on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin (another type of '''[[landform]]''' or terrain feature; that is, it is not global).
 +
Image:Mtn slide air.jpg|'''[[Landslide]]''' or '''[[landslip]]''' is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as '''[[rock]]''' falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments. Image:Mtn slide air.jpg|'''[[Landslide]]''' or '''[[landslip]]''' is a geological phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground movement, such as '''[[rock]]''' falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows, which can occur in offshore, coastal and onshore environments.
 +
Image:Monadnock Yamniska CAN.jpg|'''[[Monadnock]]''' or '''[[inselberg]]''' is an isolated '''[[rock]]''' '''[[hill]]''', knob, '''[[ridge]]''', or small '''[[mountain]]''' that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain. Image:Monadnock Yamniska CAN.jpg|'''[[Monadnock]]''' or '''[[inselberg]]''' is an isolated '''[[rock]]''' '''[[hill]]''', knob, '''[[ridge]]''', or small '''[[mountain]]''' that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain.
 +
Image:Mountain slope.jpg|'''[[Mountain]]''' is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A '''[[mountain]]''' is generally steeper than a '''[[hill]]''' Image:Mountain slope.jpg|'''[[Mountain]]''' is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area usually in the form of a peak. A '''[[mountain]]''' is generally steeper than a '''[[hill]]'''
 +
Image:Nunatak.jpg|'''[[Nunatak]]''' (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a '''[[ridge]]''', '''[[mountain]]''', or '''[[peak]]''' not covered with '''[[ice]]''' or '''[[snow]]''' within (or at the edge of) an '''[[ice field]]''' or '''[[glacier]]'''. Image:Nunatak.jpg|'''[[Nunatak]]''' (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a '''[[ridge]]''', '''[[mountain]]''', or '''[[peak]]''' not covered with '''[[ice]]''' or '''[[snow]]''' within (or at the edge of) an '''[[ice field]]''' or '''[[glacier]]'''.
 +
Image:Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia.jpg|'''[[Mountain range]]''' is a chain of '''[[mountains]]''' bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by '''[[passes]]''' or '''[[valleys]]'''. Image:Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia.jpg|'''[[Mountain range]]''' is a chain of '''[[mountains]]''' bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by '''[[passes]]''' or '''[[valleys]]'''.
 +
Image:Bas-d-arolla glacier sui.jpg|'''[[Ogives]]''' are broad banded surface patterns that generally curve down-'''[[glacier]]''' as a result of faster ice movement toward the center of a '''[[glacier]]'''. Image:Bas-d-arolla glacier sui.jpg|'''[[Ogives]]''' are broad banded surface patterns that generally curve down-'''[[glacier]]''' as a result of faster ice movement toward the center of a '''[[glacier]]'''.
 +
Image:Physical weathering.jpg|'''[[Physical weathering]]''' is the disintegration of earth material without undergoing a chemical change. Physical weathering results in increased surface area for chemical reactions to occur on. Image:Physical weathering.jpg|'''[[Physical weathering]]''' is the disintegration of earth material without undergoing a chemical change. Physical weathering results in increased surface area for chemical reactions to occur on.
 +
Image:Plateau.jpg|'''[[Plateau]]''' also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly '''[[eroded]]''' plateau is called a dissected plateau. Image:Plateau.jpg|'''[[Plateau]]''' also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain. A highly '''[[eroded]]''' plateau is called a dissected plateau.
 +
Image:Permafrost-extent-in-the-northern-hemisphere.jpg|'''[[Permafrost]]''' or permafrost soil is '''[[soil]]''' at or below the '''[[freezing point]]''' of '''[[water]]''' ('''0 °C or 32 °F''') for two or more '''[[years]]'''. Image:Permafrost-extent-in-the-northern-hemisphere.jpg|'''[[Permafrost]]''' or permafrost soil is '''[[soil]]''' at or below the '''[[freezing point]]''' of '''[[water]]''' ('''0 °C or 32 °F''') for two or more '''[[years]]'''.
-Image:Ravines on side of mountain.jpg|'''[[Ravine]]''' is a very small '''[[valley]]'''—almost like a '''[[canyon]]''' but narrower—which is often the product of streamcutting '''[[erosion]]'''. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than '''[[gullies]]''', although smaller than '''[[valleys]]'''.+ 
 +Image:Ravines on side of mountain.jpg|'''[[Ravine]]''' is a very small '''[[valley]]'''—almost like a '''[[canyon]]''' but narrower—which is often the product of streamcutting '''[[erosion]]'''. Ravines are typically classified as larger in scale than '''[[gullies]]''', although
 +smaller than '''[[valleys]]'''.
 + 
 +Image:Ribbon Lake.JPG|'''[[Ribbon lake]]''' is a long and narrow, finger-shaped '''[[lake]]''', usually found in a glacial trough. Its formation begins when a '''[[glacier]]''' moves over an area containing alternate bands of hard and soft bedrock. The sharp-edged '''[[boulders]]''' that are picked up by the glacier and carried at the bottom of the glacier erode the softer rock more quickly by abrasion, thus creating a hollow called a rock basin. On either side of the rock basin, the more resistant rock is eroded less and these outcrops of harder rock are known as rock bars, which act as dams between which rainwater may accumulate after the retreat of the ice age, filling up the rock basin and creating a ribbon lake.
 + 
 +Image:Mountain riparian area.png|'''[[Riparian areas]]''' Pertaining to anything connected with or immediately adjacent to the banks of a '''[[stream]]''', '''[[river]]''', '''[[wetlands]]''' or flowing watercourse.
 + 
 +Image:Gratitude-Rocks.jpg|'''[[Rock]]''' or stone is a naturally occurring '''[[solid]]''' '''[[aggregate]]''' of minerals and/or mineraloids. The Earth's outer solid layer, the '''[[lithosphere]]''', is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, '''[[igneous]]''', '''[[sedimentary]]''', and '''[[metamorphic]]'''. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, and petrology is an essential component of geology.
 + 
 +Image:Mountain ridge.png|'''[[Ridge]]''' is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed '''[[hills]]''' or '''[[mountains]]''' as well, depending on size.
 + 
Image:Bow river and castle mountain alberta canada 1.jpg|A '''[[river]]''' is a natural '''[[watercourse]]''', usually '''[[freshwater]]''', flowing toward an ocean, a '''[[lake]]''', a sea, or another river. Bow River and Castle Mountain Alberta Canada Image:Bow river and castle mountain alberta canada 1.jpg|A '''[[river]]''' is a natural '''[[watercourse]]''', usually '''[[freshwater]]''', flowing toward an ocean, a '''[[lake]]''', a sea, or another river. Bow River and Castle Mountain Alberta Canada
 +
Image:Snow line.jpg|The lowest '''[[elevation]]''' area of a perennial snow field on high terrain, such as a '''[[mountain]]''' range. The climatic snow line is the point above which '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[ice]]''' cover the ground throughout the year. The actual snow line may seasonally be significantly lower. Image:Snow line.jpg|The lowest '''[[elevation]]''' area of a perennial snow field on high terrain, such as a '''[[mountain]]''' range. The climatic snow line is the point above which '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[ice]]''' cover the ground throughout the year. The actual snow line may seasonally be significantly lower.
 +
Image:Arctic scree slope-thumb.jpg|'''[[Scree]]''' also called talus, is a term given to an accumulation of broken '''[[rock]]''' fragments at the base of crags, '''[[mountain cliffs]]''', or '''[[valley]]''' shoulders. '''[[Landforms]]''' associated with these materials are sometimes called '''[[scree slopes]]''' or talus piles. Image:Arctic scree slope-thumb.jpg|'''[[Scree]]''' also called talus, is a term given to an accumulation of broken '''[[rock]]''' fragments at the base of crags, '''[[mountain cliffs]]''', or '''[[valley]]''' shoulders. '''[[Landforms]]''' associated with these materials are sometimes called '''[[scree slopes]]''' or talus piles.
 +
Image:Serac.JPG|'''[[Serac]]''' (originally from Swiss French sérac, a type of ricotta-like whey cheese) is a block or column of ice formed by intersecting '''[[crevasses]]''' on a '''[[glacier]]'''. Often house-sized or larger, they are dangerous to mountaineers since they may topple with little warning. Even when stabilized by persistent cold weather, they can be an impediment to glacier travel. Image:Serac.JPG|'''[[Serac]]''' (originally from Swiss French sérac, a type of ricotta-like whey cheese) is a block or column of ice formed by intersecting '''[[crevasses]]''' on a '''[[glacier]]'''. Often house-sized or larger, they are dangerous to mountaineers since they may topple with little warning. Even when stabilized by persistent cold weather, they can be an impediment to glacier travel.
 +
Image:Snow patch Bugaboo spire.jpg|'''[[Snow patch]]''' is a geomorphological pattern of '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[firn]]''' accumulation which lies on the surface longer time than other seasonal '''[[snow cover]]'''. There are two types to distinguish; seasonal snow patches and perennial snow patches. Seasonal patches usually '''[[melt]]''' during the late '''[[summer]]''' but later than rest of the snow. Image:Snow patch Bugaboo spire.jpg|'''[[Snow patch]]''' is a geomorphological pattern of '''[[snow]]''' and '''[[firn]]''' accumulation which lies on the surface longer time than other seasonal '''[[snow cover]]'''. There are two types to distinguish; seasonal snow patches and perennial snow patches. Seasonal patches usually '''[[melt]]''' during the late '''[[summer]]''' but later than rest of the snow.
 +
Image:Spur.jpg|'''[[Spur]]''' is a subsidiary '''[[summit]]''' of a '''[[mountain]]'''. By definition, spurs have low topographic prominence, as they are lower than their parent summit and are closely connected to them on the same ridgeline. Image:Spur.jpg|'''[[Spur]]''' is a subsidiary '''[[summit]]''' of a '''[[mountain]]'''. By definition, spurs have low topographic prominence, as they are lower than their parent summit and are closely connected to them on the same ridgeline.
 +
Image:Fall stream.jpg|'''[[Stream]]''' is a body of '''[[water]]''' with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. Depending on its locale or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to as a branch, brook, beck, burn, creek, kill, lick, rill, river syke, bayou, rivulet, streamage, wash, or run. Image:Fall stream.jpg|'''[[Stream]]''' is a body of '''[[water]]''' with a current, confined within a bed and stream banks. Depending on its locale or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to as a branch, brook, beck, burn, creek, kill, lick, rill, river syke, bayou, rivulet, streamage, wash, or run.
 +
 +Image:Subalpine lg.jpg|'''[[Subalpine]]''' refers to the biotic zone immediately below '''[[tree line]]''' around the world. Species that occur in this zone depend on the location of the zone on the Earth.
 +
Image:Tree line banff national park.jpg|'''[[Tree line]]''' or '''[[timberline]]''' is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond the tree line, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions (usually '''[[cold]]''' '''[[temperatures]]''', insufficient '''[[air pressure]]''', or lack of '''[[moisture]]'''). Image:Tree line banff national park.jpg|'''[[Tree line]]''' or '''[[timberline]]''' is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond the tree line, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions (usually '''[[cold]]''' '''[[temperatures]]''', insufficient '''[[air pressure]]''', or lack of '''[[moisture]]''').
 +
Image:Mer de glace panorama.jpg|'''[[Trim line]]''', also written as trimline, is a clear line on the side of a '''[[valley]]''' formed by a '''[[glacier]]'''. The line marks the most recent highest extent of the '''[[glacier]]'''. The line may be visible due to changes in color to the '''[[rock]]''' or to changes in vegetation on either side of the line. Image:Mer de glace panorama.jpg|'''[[Trim line]]''', also written as trimline, is a clear line on the side of a '''[[valley]]''' formed by a '''[[glacier]]'''. The line marks the most recent highest extent of the '''[[glacier]]'''. The line may be visible due to changes in color to the '''[[rock]]''' or to changes in vegetation on either side of the line.
 +
Image:Fryatt Valley Canada.jpg|In geology, a '''[[valley]]''' or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep '''[[river]]''' valley may be called a '''[[canyon]]''' or '''[[gorge]]'''. Image:Fryatt Valley Canada.jpg|In geology, a '''[[valley]]''' or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep '''[[river]]''' valley may be called a '''[[canyon]]''' or '''[[gorge]]'''.
 +
Image:Morteratsch- und persgletscher.jpg|'''[[Valley Glacier]]''': an '''[[alpine glacier]]''' flowing in a '''[[valley]]'''. In mountainous regions, glacial flow is restricted by the '''[[valley]]''' walls. These '''[[glaciers]]''' start in '''[[cirques]]''' and extend down-valley from the '''[[cirque]]'''. Image:Morteratsch- und persgletscher.jpg|'''[[Valley Glacier]]''': an '''[[alpine glacier]]''' flowing in a '''[[valley]]'''. In mountainous regions, glacial flow is restricted by the '''[[valley]]''' walls. These '''[[glaciers]]''' start in '''[[cirques]]''' and extend down-valley from the '''[[cirque]]'''.
 +
 +Image:Wetlands-area--Slide-Mountain.jpg|'''[[Wetlands]]''' is an area of land whose soil is saturated with '''[[moisture]]''' either permanently or seasonally. Such areas may also be covered partially or completely by shallow pools of '''[[water]]'''. Wetlands include swamps, marshes, and bogs, among others. The water found in wetlands can be '''[[saltwater]]''', '''[[freshwater]]''', or brackish.
 +
Image:Wind scoop.jpg|'''[[Wind scoop]]''' Hollow around '''[[rock]]''' outcrop caused by wind '''[[erosion]]''' or enhanced '''[[ablation]]'''. Image:Wind scoop.jpg|'''[[Wind scoop]]''' Hollow around '''[[rock]]''' outcrop caused by wind '''[[erosion]]''' or enhanced '''[[ablation]]'''.
 +
 +Image:Watercourse Stream Valley.jpg|'''[[Watercourse]]''' is any flowing body of '''[[water]]'''. These include '''[[rivers]]''', '''[[stream]]s''', brooks, anabranches, and so forth.
 +
 +Image:Watershed.JPG|'''[[Watershed]]''' is, in simplest terms, the area of land from which '''[[precipitation]]''' or surface '''[[water]]''' flow is drained into a receiving water body. The term is roughly analogous to "drainage basin", and are often used either interchangeably. While primarily describing the geologic/geographic drainage patterns of water, a more holistic view of the word watershed incorporates all the biotic and abiotic communities and processes contained in the drainage basin.
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Current revision

Landform or physical feature comprises a geomorphological unit, and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such, is typically an element of topography.

Landform elements also include seascape and oceanic waterbody interface features such as bays, peninsulas, seas and so forth, including sub-aqueous terrain features such as submersed mountain ranges, volcanoes, and the great ocean basins.

[edit] Reference

  • Wikipedia Landform [3]

[edit] Landform Gallery




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