# General Definitions

(Difference between revisions)
 Revision as of 20:10, 12 August 2009 (edit)Joe (Talk | contribs) (→'''E''')← Previous diff Revision as of 12:32, 14 August 2009 (edit) (undo)Joe (Talk | contribs) (→'''M''')Next diff → Line 187: Line 187: == '''M''' == == '''M''' == - '''[[Metre per second]]''' Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. This is the main unit of speed. The official SI symbolic abbreviation is m·s−1, or equivalently, m/s; although the abbreviation mps is sometimes used colloquially, but is incorrect according to the BIPM. Where kilometres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in terms of metres per second, where 1 km/s is equivalent to 103 metres per second. + '''[[Metre per second]]''' Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. This is the main unit of speed. The official SI symbolic abbreviation is m·s−1, or equivalently, '''m/s'''; although the abbreviation mps is sometimes used colloquially, but is incorrect according to the BIPM. Where kilometres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in terms of metres per second, where '''1 km/s''' is equivalent to 103 metres per second. - + '''[[Microfibers]]''' '''[[Microfibers]]'''

## A

Acromion process, is an anatomical feature on the shoulder blade (scapula), together with the coracoid process extending laterally over the shoulder joint.

Acceleration is the change in velocity over time.

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call.[1] A splitter - or microfilter - allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. ADSL can generally only be distributed over short distances from the central office, typically less than 4 kilometres (2 mi),[2] but has been known to exceed 8 kilometres (5 mi) if the originally laid wire gauge allows for farther distribution.

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object.

Air (as in Air & Form) This category of judging takes into account the quality of takeoff and the height and distance of the jump.

Air (Moguls) The aerial manoeuvre or jump performed during a Mogul run.

Alternates / Substitutes A possible replacement for an accredited competitor. An <alternate / substitute> competitor will be registered and will have an accreditation card that will allow him/her access to the training venue(s), but he / she cannot stay in the Olympic village and has no access to the fields of play at the competition venue(s).

## B

Biceps brachii is a muscle located on the upper arm. The biceps has several functions, the most important being to rotate the forearm (supination) and to flex the elbow.

Bib number Competitor’s number for each event.

Classification Arrangement of symbols indicating concepts into classes and their subdivisions to express generic relations or other types of relations between them. (ISO 5127:2001)

## C

Category The FIS abbreviation for the category of competition specific to the sector (see table): Example for all sectors: WC (World Cup), WSC (World Ski Championships), FIS (FIS race)

Clear A verbal command indicating that the course is ready for the next run.

Clock drift refers to several related phenomena where a clock does not run at the exact right speed compared to another clock. That is, after some time the clock "drifts apart" from the other clock.

Competition The competition is from the start of the first event of a sport to the completion of the last event of a sport, excluding the opening and closing ceremonies.

“Competitor Ready! 3, 2, 1, Go!” Mogul Start Command.

Course ‘Inside of the Fences’ Course Specification according to IF

Course Hold a brief stoppage of the competition until the Jury feels conditions on course are ready (can be due to a competitior down, poor course conditions, an obstruction on the course)

Codex The unique identification number for each competition with the sector i.e. 8207 (latest details can be found in the calendar section of the FIS website [1])

Cup Standing A series of points given by rank in a competition which is part of a Cup or series of competitions in a geographical area.

Cut and Fill in snow or earthmoving is the process of constructing a ski slope, railway, road or canal whereby the amount of material or snow from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labor and machine hours.

Current season All FIS World Cup competitions taking place after July in the year prior to the Games.

## D

Data A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993)

Degree of difficulty (DD) Numeric value that represents the difficulty of the manoeuvre and is used as a multiplier when calculating the total score in Aerials.

Did not start (DNS) An indicator given to a competitor who was on the start list, but did not compete in the competition.

DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is that country's ISO member body.

Discipline = is a branch of a sport comprising one or several events

Disqualified (DSQ) A ruling by the Jury that a competitor has broken the rules of the sport and cannot be considered for a placing in the competition.

Dye Colored liquid vegetable dye sprayed in a narrow line at the side of the track ("the line") that gives the skiers definition of the course. Definition lines are also sprayed on the track at right angles near jumps and other severe changes in the pitch of the course, or where visibility for skiers may be poor.  Applied by the Dye Crew.

## E

Egress A path or opening for going out; an exit.

Elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint the ginglymus or hinge joint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. The bony prominence at the very tip of the elbow is the olecranon process of the ulna, and the inner aspect of the elbow is called the antecubital fossa.

Event “An event, being a competition in an Olympic sport or in one of its disciplines and resulting in a ranking, gives rise to the awarding of medals and diplomas.” (Olympic Charter, paragraph 52.3.1)

An event consists of one or several steps or parts of one sport discipline. The number of the event steps (one or more) leads to the final step at which medals are awarded. There are 6 events in the Olympic Freestyle Skiing programme as follows:

Eventname Name of Event as published in FIS calendar; Example: Regional Winter Series.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) A general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages. It is capable of describing many different kinds of data. NOTE: Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet.

Extrinsic: Not forming an essential or inherent part of a thing; extraneous. Originating from the outside; external.

## F

Final The phase of competition following the qualifications which determines the medallists.

Finish Area the deceleration zone beyond the finish line at 0 degree angle

FIS Aerial Seed List List published by FIS, which shows the average of the best two FIS World Cup points of each current Aerial competitor. This list is used to extract the seed list, which determines the “A” and “B” seeds in each competition.

FIS code A unique seven digit numeric code assigned by FIS to identify each competitor. The competitor’s personal and unique FIS code. Every competitor must have a valid FIS code to participate in a FIS race. This code is published on the FIS list, or in exceptional cases between the publication of lists may have been provided to the TD or Organisers by the FIS Office in writing.

FIS Freestyle Coordinator The FIS Freestyle Coordinator is responsible for the overall management of FIS freestyle skiing activities.

FIS Points List The currently recognised world-ranking list for freestyle skiing. The list takes into account the average of each athlete’s best two results in a twelve-month period.

FIS World Championships A biannual championship in which a maximum of four competitors per nation/gender/event can compete for a world champion title.

FIS World Cup The FIS international series of events, which take place each season typically during August, December, January, February and March.

FIS World Cup standings A competitiors accumulation of points over a World Cup season.

Flight plan Form distributed to team captains on which they indicate the jumps to be performed.

Forerunner A non-competing competitor that performs prior to the start of the event, and is used to test all official systems and allow the judges an opportunity for practice.

Force Majeure (French for "superior force"), also known as cas fortuit (French) or casus fortuitus (Latin)[1], is a common clause in contracts which essentially frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties, such as a war, strike, riot, crime, or an event described by the legal term "act of God" (e.g., flooding, earthquake, volcano), prevents one or both parties from fulfilling their obligations under the contract. However, force majeure is not intended to excuse negligence or other malfeasance of a party, as where non-performance is caused by the usual and natural consequences of external forces (e.g., predicted rain stops an outdoor event), or where the intervening circumstances are specifically contemplated.

Form The quality of execution of a manoeuvre or run.

Freestyle Discipline = Is one of the 5 Olympic Skiing Disciplines of the International Ski Federation

FOP = Field Of Play includes Start Area, the Course and the Finish Area

## G

Gate Key – a tool comprising a short open-slotted length of tubular steel used to screw hinged gate poles into holes drilled in the snow.  Gate Keys have two teeth at the end of the tube which slip over and fit into the hinge collar on the screw-in gate pole.(Right hand thread)

Gradient Angle of the slope.

G-force A physical force equivalent to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during rapid changes of direction or velocity. Skiers experience G-forces as they turn, absorb moguls, rollers and compressions and the landing of a jump or stopping.

Gravitation or Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which objects with mass attract one another. In everyday life, gravitation is most commonly thought of as the agency which lends weight to objects with mass.

Gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object caused by the force of gravity from another object. In the absence of any other forces, any object will accelerate in a gravitational field at the same rate, regardless of the mass of the object. On the surface of the Earth, all objects fall with an acceleration of somewhere between 9.78 and 9.82 m/s² depending on latitude, with a standard gravity value of exactly 9.80665 m/s², (approx. 32.174 ft/s2).

## H

Heat The finals in Ski Cross are divided into heats with 4 skiers in each heat.

High score The higher of the two jump scores in Aerials. Used in Aerial tie-breaking.

Homologation is a technical term, for "to agree", which is generally used in English to signify the granting of approval by an official authority.

Homologation number The the number assigned to an approved homologation application.

Humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Anatomically, it connects the scapula and the ulna.

## I

ICR = International Competition Rules, Cape Town (RSA) Version 2008

In-run In Aerials the skiers go down an in-run which ends in a take-off ramp (the jump).

IF = International Federation, in this case International Ski Federation (FIS)

Ingress The act of entering.

Inclinometer, known in many fields as an clinometer, is a common tool used in skiing to measure slope, vertical angles, and – in combination with distance measurements – elevation change or vertical drop.

## J

Judge A FIS official who evaluates the performance of a competitor.

Judges protocol A report used by the Score Verifier to compare the marks recorded on the judges cards with those printed by the results system.

Jump (first jump/second jump) One of two rounds of Aerial competition.

Jump code A textual code that is built using predefined letters that describes the manoeuvre to be performed.

## K

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a light, strong para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids.

Kicker The specially constructed ramp of snow from which aerialists perform their manoeuvres.

Knoll The line that separates the Table from the landing hill on an Aerial site.

## L

Landing The specially prepared slope on which aerialists land.

Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses.

Lift Capacity Per Hour The number of people who can ride up the mountain on a lift in one hour. For example, a 2,600 lift capacity per hour means that the ski area's lifts can transport 2,600 skiers per hour at maximum capacity.

Lyrca Spandex—or elastane—is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major non-synthetic competitor.

## M

Metre per second Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. This is the main unit of speed. The official SI symbolic abbreviation is m·s−1, or equivalently, m/s; although the abbreviation mps is sometimes used colloquially, but is incorrect according to the BIPM. Where kilometres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in terms of metres per second, where 1 km/s is equivalent to 103 metres per second.

Microfibers Micro fibers in textiles refer to sub-denier fiber (such as polyester drawn to 0.5 dn).

## N

Nation The three letter FIS code for the organising nation

NSA National Ski Association

Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. It is used in a wide variety of applications, such as in wetsuits, laptop sleeves, orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc.), electrical insulation, liquid and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, and car fan belts. Neoprene is the trade name used by DuPont Performance Elastomers.

## O

On Course A verbal command indicating that the competitior has started on the course.

OC = Organizers of the competition

OWG = Olympic Winter Games

## P

Pace time Pace time is a calculated value for men’s and ladies competitions. The pace speed for the moguls is 8.3 m/sec for ladies and 9.7 m/sec for men. To calculate the pace time for a specific course, take the length of the course in metres and divide by the pace speed in m/sec.

Percentage (%) of maximum Term used in best scores report that compares the current best score to the maximum possible score in the current scoring system.

Phase This is the progression system in competition. Freestyle Skiing consists of the following phases – for Moguls and Aerials: - Qualification, - Final For Ski Cross: - Qualification - 1/8 Finals (men only) - Quarterfinals - Semifinals - Finals (Classification 5-8 and Final)

Place The resort, town, etc. Example: Oberhofen

Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic amorphous solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.

Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally-occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not.

Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including packaging, textiles (e.g. ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.

Polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two hydroxyl (alcohol) groups in the presence of a catalyst.

Protest A formal complaint from a NSA or NOC delegation to the Jury.

## Q

Qualification The preliminary Phase of an event used to select a group of competitors who will participate in the final.

Qualified A competitor who is allowed to participate in the Final.

## R

Racedate Date of competition; Day, Day in numerical form: 01, 11, 21, etc., Month, Month in numerical form: 01, 02, 03, etc., Year;Year in four digit numerical form: 2000, 2001, 2002, etc.

Race Director The Race Director is responsible for the coordination of the technical aspects at freestyle skiing competitions.

Race points FIS points earned by each competitor in the current event.

Rank Placing in an event. Competitors are ranked according to FIS rules.

Receives no score (RNS) A zero score given to a competitor (for example: a Moguls competitor who skis around a control gate in Moguls). A RNS, in contrast to a DSQ, receives the last place in the field.

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

Roll call The process of confirming if a delegation is present during the team captains meeting.

Rubber (natural) is an elastomer (an elastic hydrocarbon polymer) that was originally derived from a milky colloidal suspension, or latex, found in the sap of some plants. The purified form of natural rubber is the chemical polyisoprene which can also be produced synthetically. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products as is synthetic rubber.

Run (first run/second run) Run is used to describe the performance in the Ski Cross - qualification phase. All skiers have 2 timed runs. The better of two runs determines the qualification-ranking list.

## S

Safety Bindings function as strain limiters. That is, these devices transfer specific demands occurring during skiing to an acceptable limit, and when this limit is overstepped, they release their firm hold to the ski. (See 4306.1.2, 4206.1.2, 4008.2.2)

Score verifier The FIS reserve judge who is responsible for checking the addition of the judges marks and the correctness of the printed results. The score verifier can also replace a judge if the need arises.

Season 2010 = season July 2009 – April 2010, 2010 = season July 2009 – April 2010, etc.

Sector Definition of the sector (FIS discipline): AL (Alpine), CC (Cross-Country), JP (Ski Jumping), NK (Nordic Combined), FS (Freestyle), SB (Snowboard), SS (Speed Skiing), GS (Grass Skiing), TM (Telemark)

Seed (“A” seed & “B” seed) The top 16 men and eight ladies from the seed list comprise the “A” seed; the remainder of the field become the “B” seed.

Seed list List of competitors entered in the current competition in order of their seed points separated into groups.

Seed points The average of each athlete’s two best FIS World Cup points over a twelve (12) month period.

Sex M = Men, L = Ladies

Ski Boots Ski boots are robust footwear developed especially for skiing, offering protection against jolts and bumps as well as injury from ski edges and other external causes. The ski boot encloses the foot firmly, while at the same time allowing the movement necessary for skiing techniques, in that the ankle has the room it needs to move, but at the same time allowing the transfer of every steering movement completely to the ski.

Ski Gloves Gloves offer protective covering against weather and external forces. The wearing of gloves is strongly recommended. Protective padding along the entire length of the glove is permitted. The use of protective guards in the form of shields, which are pulled over the glove, is permitted.

Ski Goggles Ski goggles are devices protecting the eyes against weather and rays with optically correct lenses. Their aim is to guarantee good, contrast-free visibility in all weather conditions. The use of ski goggles is recommended.

Ski Poles The ski pole is a sports article whose function should aid the skier, facilitate balance and, if necessary, enable stopping. The national and international guidelines and norms establish the minimum requirements for ski pole tips, grips, shaft, baskets, straps, length, etc. Due to risk of injury, metal baskets are not permitted.

Ski Stoppers The ski stopper is a catching apparatus for skis, whose function is to stop or bring to a standstill the loose ski following the release of the safety binding within the intermediate area of the skiers fall. In competitions and official training skis without ski stoppers are not permitted. Ski Stoppers must be mounted in such a way as not to impede the operation of the device. The manufacturer is responsible for a perfect function of the ski stoppers.

Skiers Left and Skiers Right, denotes the position of the viewer in relationship to the course.

Slippers persons, who groom the snow surface with their skis, removing ruts and snow between competitiors runs.  This group has a training session to go over proper ways to slip.  During competition days, Slip Crews inject themselves between competitiors to side-slip a short section of the course, between pre-defined pull-outs. After a number of racers have passed, the Slip Crews on the course will all slip to the next pullout.  Also referred to as "High Speed Slip".

Slope Orientation The compass direction of a slope taken in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the face, or looking down the fall line. Various weather factors vary with aspect, such as solar radiation and wind loading, and therefore the snowpack and its stability will depend heavily on this parameter.

Slope is used to describe the steepness, incline, gradient, or grade of a straight line. A higher slope value indicates a steeper incline. The slope is defined as the ratio of the "rise" divided by the "run" between two points on a line, or in other words, the ratio of the altitude change to the horizontal distance between any two points on the line. It is also always the same thing as how many rises in one run.

Solid objects are in the states of matter characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume.

Sport A sport is administered by an international federation and can be composed of one or more disciplines.

Sport discipline A Discipline is a branch of an Olympic sport comprising one or several Events.

Start number A number representing the order in which a competitor will start.

Start Area = Contains a start device and flat space where competitors and equipment is prepared

Status DNS = Did not start, DNS = Did not start, DSQ = Disqualified, DNF = Did not finish, DNQ = Did not qualify

Stadium = Includes, the Course and the Spectator Viewing Area.

Stop Start A verbal command that the competition is stopped and the next competitior in start position is held in start gate

Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve upon naturally occurring animal and plant. In general, synthetic fibers are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before synthetic fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants called cellulose fibers.

## T

Table The flat area of an Aerial site on which the Kickers are built.

Technical fabrics are high-performance fabrics designed and marketed mainly for sportwear and sporting goods. They are usually all-synthetic, or have synthetic components as part of a composite design. Some are multi-layer bonded fabrics, some are textiles treated with synthetic substances and some are made from a single synthetic substance.

Textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibres, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).

Tie When two or more competitors receive the same score.

Tie-break points The result of the tie-breaking process. Basically representing a comparison of judges scores for each competitor affected by the Tie.

Tie-breaking The process used to determine if a tie can be broken.

Time is a component of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects. An operational definition of time, wherein one says that observing a certain number of repetitions of one or another standard cyclical event (such as the passage of a free-swinging pendulum) constitutes one standard unit such as the second.

Time points Conversion of time into a point score once the “Grange Formula” has been applied. See FIS Rule Book.

Timing tape The printed record of each timing impulse, time of day, bib number and elapsed time produced by the official time keeping system.

Three-dimensional space (3D) is a geometric model of the physical universe in which we live. The three dimensions are commonly called length, width, and depth (or height), although any three mutually perpendicular directions can serve as the three dimensions.

Truncation is the term for limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point, by discarding the least significant ones.

## V

Venue = Includes the Stadium and all of the related Infrastructure.

Vinyl is any organic compound that contains a vinyl group (also called ethenyl)

Velocity is defined as the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it. In the SI (metric) system, it is measured in meters per second: (m/s) or ms-1.

## Y

Yearofbirth The competitor’s year of birth as it appears on the FIS list.

## W

Waterproof / breathable fabrics resist water droplets from passing through while at the same time allowing water vapour through. Their ability to block out rain and snow while allowing vapor from sweat to evaporate lends to their use in outdoor sports clothing and single wall tents.

Waterproof fabrics are usually natural or synthetic fabrics that are laminated to or coated in some sort of permanently waterproofing material, such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, and wax.

WC World Cup

WiFi The term Wi-Fi is often used by the public as a synonym for wireless LAN (WLAN);

Winter Olympic Games is a winter multi-sport event held every four years. They feature winter sports held on snow or ice, such as Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsledding and ice hockey. Cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have all been competed at every Winter Olympics since 1924. Other athletic events have been added as the Games have progressed. Some of these events, such as luge, short track speed skating, and freestyle skiing have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic program. Others, like speed skiing, bandy, and skijöring have been demonstration sports but never incorporated officially as an Olympic sport.

WLAN A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.