Timing Systems and Developments

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transponder_timing Transponder timing is a technique for measuring performance in athletic events. A radio transponder, attached to the athlete, emits a unique code that is detected by radio receivers located at the strategic points in an event.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timing he act of measuring the elapsed time of something or someone, often at athletic events such as swimming or running, where participants are timed with a device such as a stopwatch.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nokia_Sports_Tracker Nokia Sports Tracker is a piece of software for Symbian Series 60 phones (particularly those that include a GPS facility such as the popular Nokia N95, or bluetooth phones with the addition of a bluetooth-compatible GPS receiver) that allows its user to track their route, speed and timings while engaging in a sport activity such as running, jogging or cycling.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timekeeper A timekeeper is an instrument or person that measures the passage of time; in the case of the latter, often with the assistance of a clock or stopwatch. In addition, the timekeeper records time, time taken, or time remaining during events such as sports matches.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronograph A chronograph is a timepiece or watch with both timekeeping and stopwatch functions. Pocket watch chronographs were produced as early as the 18th century but did not become popular until the 1820s.[1] The term 'Chronograph' is often confused with the term 'Chronometer' which in some cases designates a watch that has received a precision certification. The Marine chronometer was an accurate timepiece used to enable celestial navigation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-force The g-force of an object is its acceleration relative to free-fall. The unit of measure used is informally but commonly known as the "gee" (pronounced /ˈdʒiː/), symbolized as g (also G and g).[1] An acceleration of 1 g is generally considered as equal to standard gravity[2] (symbol: gn), which is defined as precisely 9.80665 metres per second squared.[3]

The g-force of an object is 0 g in any weightless environment such as free-fall or an orbiting satellite and is 1 g (upwards) for a stationary object on the Earth's surface. However, g-forces can be much greater than 1 g on, for instance, accelerating rockets, centrifuges, and rollercoasters.

The g is not one of the International System of Units (SI). The SI unit of acceleration is m/s2.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metre_per_second_squared The metre (or meter) per second squared is the SI derived unit of acceleration. It is a measure of magnitude and can be a scalar measure or, when associated with a direction, a vector. The unit is written in symbols as m/s2, m·s−2, or m s−2. It may be better understood when phrased as "metre per second per second"—in other words, the increase in speed (in metres per second) that is achieved each second. Since the newton equals one kilogram metre per second squared, the unit can also be written as the newton per kilogram, N×kg-1, or N/kg.[1]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerometer An accelerometer measures the acceleration it experiences relative to freefall. Single- and multi-axis models are available to detect magnitude and direction of the acceleration as a vector quantity, and can be used to sense orientation, vibration and shock. Micromachined accelerometers are increasingly present in portable electronic devices and video game controllers.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stopwatch A stopwatch is a handheld timepiece designed to measure the amount of time elapsed from a particular time when activated to when the piece is deactivated. A large digital version of a stopwatch designed for viewing at a distance, as in a sports stadium, is called a stopclock. A typical mechanical analog stopwatch.

The timing functions are traditionally controlled by two buttons on the case. Pressing the top button starts the timer running, and pressing the button a second time stops it, leaving the elapsed time displayed. A press of the second button then resets the stopwatch to zero. The second button is also used to record split times or lap times. When the split time button is pressed while the watch is running, the display freezes, allowing the elapsed time to that point to be read, but the watch mechanism continues running to record total elapsed time. Pressing the split button a second time allows the watch to resume display of total time.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_frequemcy Radio frequency (RF) is a frequency or rate of oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz to 300 GHz. This range corresponds to frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. Since most of this range is beyond the vibration rate that most mechanical systems can respond to, RF usually refers to oscillations in electrical circuits.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFID_race_timing RFID Race Timing is a technique for measuring performance in athletic events like bike racing, swimming. A timing band attached to the athlete, emits a unique RFID code that is detected by radio receivers located at the strategic points in an event. Prior to the use of this technology, races were either timed by hand (with operators pressing a stop-watch) or using video camera systems.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transponder In telecommunication, the term transponder (short-for Transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR[1], XPNDR[2], TPDR[3] or TP[4]) has the following meanings:

  • An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator).
  • An automatic device that transmits a predetermined message in response to a predefined received signal.
  • A receiver-transmitter that will generate a reply signal upon proper electronic interrogation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoreboard A scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or match. Most levels of sport use at least one scoreboard for keeping score, measuring time, and displaying statistics. Scoreboards in the past used a mechanical clock and numeral cards to display the score. When a point was made, a person would put the appropriate digits on a hook. Most modern scoreboards use electromechanical or electronic means of displaying the score. In these, digits are often composed of large dot-matrix or seven-segment displays made of incandescent bulbs, light-emitting diodes, or electromechanical flip segments. An official or neutral person will operate the scoreboard, using a control panel.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISU_Judging_System The ISU Judging System (also called Code of Points (CoP) or the New Judging System (NJS)), is the scoring system currently used to judge the figure skating disciplines of men's and ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing, and synchronized skating. It was designed and implemented by the International Skating Union (ISU), the ruling body of the sport. This system of scoring is used in all international competitions sanctioned by the ISU, including the Winter Olympic Games.

The ISU Judging System replaced the previous 6.0 system in 2004. This new system was created in response to the 2002 Olympic Winter Games figure skating scandal, in an attempt to make the scoring system more objective and less vulnerable to abuse.[citation needed]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Points_(artistic_gymnastics) The Code of Points is a rulebook for gymnastics. Gymnasts competing at the lower levels and/or outside the FIG's jurisdiction--for instance, in NCAA gymnastics or for their local club team--are not scored according to the FIG's Code. Most national gymnastics federations design their own Codes or scoring systems for each level of competition. NCAA Gymnastics also has its own Code of Points. Many, if not most, other Codes still use 10.0 as the maximum score.

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