TV Glossary of Terms

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16.3 Glossary of Terms


[edit] A

Aerial shots are usually done with a crane or with a camera attached to a special helicopter to view large landscapes. This sort of shot would be restricted to exterior locations.

Analogue Contrary to digital, a continuously variable signal, circuit or device.

Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio of an image is its width divided by its height. For television and video applications, aspect ratios are pronounced ‘x-by-y’. The two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3, universal for standard-definition video formats, and 16:9, universal to high-definition and digital television.

Audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, television music or academics in any medium.

Average Minute Rating measures the number of viewers watching a typical minute of Olympic Games television coverage. The global figure is calculated by combining the average minute rating of dedicated Games coverage aired by official broadcasters.

[edit] B

B-roll, B roll, or Broll is supplemental or alternate footage intercut with the main shot in an interview or documentary.

Bandwidth The available space between two given points on the electromagnetic spectrum and, inter alia, the amount of information that can be squeezed into that space.

Basic Interoperable Scrambling System, usually known as BISS, is a satellite signal scrambling system developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers.

Billboard A short announcement to identify a sponsor at the beginning or end of a production element such as the news or traffic/weather reports.

Black Burst A Composite video signal, with a black picture used to synchronize (Genlock) certain video equipment together, thereby aligning the output. The signal is made up of vertical and horizontal sync. and Chroma burst information (1 wire).

Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed by Sony to supersede the standard DVD format. Its main uses are for high-definition video and data storage with 50GB per disc. The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs.

Bookable Facilities Technical or production services, facilities or equipment available to Broadcast Partners.

Breakbumper An animation or logotype briefly shown after the end of a programme or part of a programme before the advertising.

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults.

Broadcast Compound A specific area at a venue designated for the parking and operation of mobile technical and production trucks, office trailers and other vehicles.

Broadband Global Area Network or BGAN for short, is a global Satellite Internet Network with telephony using portable terminals. The terminals are normally used to connect a laptop computer to broadband Internet in remote locations, although as long as line-of-sight to the satellite exists, the terminal can be used anywhere. The value of BGAN terminals is that unlike other satellite Internet services which require bulky & heavy satellite dishes to connect, a BGAN terminal is about the size of a laptop and thus can be carried easily. The network is provided by Inmarsat and uses three geostationary satellites called I-4 to provide almost global coverage.

Broadcast Partner A Broadcaster that has acquired the rights to broadcast (a) FIS World Cup race(s) in a particular territory or territories, also known as a RHB (Rights Holding Broadcaster).

Broadcast range (viewing range for TV) is the service area that a broadcast station or other transmission covers via radio waves (or possibly infrared light, which is closely related). It is generally the area in which a station's signal strength is sufficient for most receivers to decode it, however this also depends on interference from other stations.

[edit] C

C band is a name given to certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as a range of wavelengths of microwaves that are used for long-distance radio telecommunications. The IEEE C-band - and its slight variations - contains frequency ranges that are used for many satellite communications transmissions; by some Wi-Fi devices; by some cordless telephones; and by some weather radar systems. For satellite communications, the microwave frequencies of the C-band perform better in comparison with Ku band (11.2 GHz to 14.5 GHz) microwave frequencies, under adverse weather conditions, which are used by another large set of communication satellites.

Cable news refers to television channels which are devoted to current events 24 hours per day.

Cable Television is a system of providing television to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in traditional television broadcasting (via radio waves) in which a television antenna is required. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephony, and similar non-television services may also be provided. The abbreviation CATV is often used to mean "Cable TV".

Category 3 cable, commonly known as Cat 3, is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable designed to reliably carry data up to 10 Mbit/s, with a possible bandwidth of 16 MHz.

Category 5 cable, is a twisted pair high signal integrity cable type often referred to as Cat5.

Channel is a range of frequencies (or, equivalently, wavelengths) assigned by a government for the operation of a particular television station or radio station. In common usage, the term also may be used to refer to the station operating on a particular frequency.

Character generator, often abbreviated as CG, is a device or software that produces static or animated text (such as crawls and rolls) for keying into a video stream. Modern character generators are computer-based, and can generate graphics as well as text. (The integrated circuit, usually in the form of a PROM, that decodes a keystroke in a keyboard, and outputs a corresponding character, is also referred to as a "character generator.")

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

Close-up is used television, and still photography to tightly frame a person or an object. Close-ups are one of the standard shots used regularly with medium shots and long shots. Close-ups display the most detail, but they do not include the broader scene. Moving in to a close-up or away from a close-up is a common type of zooming.

Coaxial cable, or coax, is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer typically of a flexible material with a high dielectric constant, all of which are surrounded by a conductive layer (typically of fine woven wire for flexibility, or of a thin metallic foil), and finally covered with a thin insulating layer on the outside. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis.

CODEC An acronym of Compression, Decompression. A device or piece of software which takes one file or signal format and translates it to another with an ideally undetectable loss of quality.

Communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to SATCOM) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits. For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology.

Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. Composite video is often designated by the CVBS acronym, meaning "Color, Video, Blank and Sync".

Color bar are a type of television test pattern, and is most commonly used in countries where the NTSC video standard is dominant, such as those in North America.

Color commentator, sometimes known as a color analyst, is sports commentator who assists the play-by-play announcer by filling in any time when play is not in progress. The term is of North American origin. The color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics, strategy and injury reports on the teams and athletes, and occasionally light humor. Color commentators are often former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast.

Commentator Radio or television sports announcer narrating the event. Commentators may work from the event itself, or in some cases ‘off tube’ via the host signal while based in their home nation.

Commentator Information System is commentator information system CIS is a real-time sport information service that provides accurate and timely data to TV viewers, radio, or online listeners and is used by sport and color commentators.

Copyright gives the author of an original work exclusive right for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation, after which time the work is said to enter the public domain. Copyright applies to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete and fixed in a medium. Some jurisdictions also recognize "moral rights" of the creator of a work, such as the right to be credited for the work. Copyright is described under the umbrella term intellectual property along with patents and trademarks.

Cumulative audience is derived by determining the aggregate number of times each television viewer around the world tuned in to Olympic Games television programming.

[edit] D

Datacasting (data broadcasting) is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio. It generally does not apply to data which is inherent to the medium, such as PSIP data which defines virtual channels for DTV or direct broadcast satellite systems; or to things like cable modem or satellite modem, which use a completely separate channel for data.

decibel (dB) A customary logarithmic measure most commonly used (in various ways) for measuring sound. The human ear is capable of detecting an enormous range of sound intensities. Furthermore, our perception is not linear. Experiment shows that when humans perceive one sound to be twice as loud as another, in fact the louder sound is about ten times as intense as the fainter one. For this reason, sound is measured on logarithmic scales. Informally, if one sound is 1 bel (10 decibels) "louder" than another, this means the louder sound is 10 times louder than the fainter one. A difference of 20 decibels corresponds to an increase of 10 x 10 or 100 times in intensity. The beginning of the scale, 0 decibels, can be set in different ways, depending on exactly which aspect of sound is being measured.

Demographic or Demographic data refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. Commonly used demographics include race, age, income, disabilities, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. Distributions of values within a demographic variable, and across households, are both of interest, as well as trends over time. Demographics are frequently used in economic and marketing research.

Digital system uses discrete (discontinuous) values, usually but not always symbolized numerically (hence called "digital") to represent information for input, processing, transmission, storage, etc. Such data-carrying signals carry electronic or optical pulses, the amplitude of each of which represents a logical 1 (pulse present and/or high) or a logical 0 (pulse absent and/or low).

Digital audio uses digital signals for sound reproduction. This includes analog-to-digital conversion, digital-to-analog conversion, storage, and transmission. In effect, the system commonly referred to as digital is in fact a discrete-time, discrete-level analog of a previous electrical analog.

Digital cable is a type of cable television distribution using digital video compression.

Digital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. Computing is primarily based on the binary numeral system. In this case digital refers to the discrete states of "0" and "1" for representing arbitrary data. Digital media like digital audio, digital video and other digital "content" can be created, referred to and distributed via digital information processing machines. Digital media represents a profound change from previous (analog) media.

Digital networks are electronics systems that use digital signals. Digital electronics are used in computers, mobile phones, and other consumer products. In a digital circuit, a signal is represented in discrete states or logic levels. The advantages of digital techniques stem from the fact it is easier to get an electronic device to switch into one of a number of known states, than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values, traditionally only two states, '1' and '0' are used though digital systems are not limited to this.

Digital rights management (DRM) is a generic term that refers to access control technologies that can be used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to try to impose limitations on the usage of digital content and devices. The term is used to describe any technology which inhibits uses (legitimate or otherwise) of digital content that were not desired or foreseen by the content provider. The term generally doesn't refer to other forms of copy protection which can be circumvented without modifying the file or device, such as serial numbers or keyfiles. It can also refer to restrictions associated with specific instances of digital works or devices.

Digital recording, the analog signal of video or sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure or chroma and luminance values through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound or moving image.

Digital Television (DTV) is the sending and receiving of moving images and sound by discrete (digital) signals, in contrast to the analog signals used by analog TV.

Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV or DTT) is an implementation of digital technology to provide a greater number of channels and/or better quality of picture and sound using aerial broadcasts to a conventional antenna (or aerial) instead of a satellite dish or cable connection.

Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital rather than an analog video signal.

DVD player is a device that plays discs produced under both the DVD Video and DVD Audio technical standards, two different and incompatible standards.

Digital video recorder (DVR) or personal video recorder (PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive or other memory medium within a device.

Digitizing or digitization is representing an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called "digital representation" or, more specifically, a "digital image", for the object, and "digital form", for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form.

Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to more broadly as direct-to-home signals. The expression direct-to-home or DTH was, initially, meant to distinguish the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television distribution services that sometimes carried on the same satellite.

DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting The MPEG-2 based standard of digital transmission and reception. Comes in variants according to the type of broadcast, eg DVB-T for terrestrial.

DVD, also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc", is an optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are video and data storage. DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data.

DVD-Audio (commonly abbreviated as DVD-A) is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD.

Display resolution of a digital television or display typically refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed.

Downlink(DL) is the link from a satellite to a ground station. Segment of a satellite transmission from the satellite to a receiving dish.

Dub Most commonly, a copy of a film or tape. It can also mean making a completely new soundtrack, as in dubbing English for a foreign film. A dubbed tape is also called a dupe.

[edit] E

EET Equivalent Electric Time: An official time determined from the back up timing systems for a missing time from the primary timing system.

ENG Electronic News Gathering, using a portable lightweight field camera. Typically used by a small production (or ENG) crew.

EPG Electronic Programme Guide Channel and programme listing service available on digital TV.

Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model, through means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC) /Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format.

Establishing shot sets up, or "establishes", a scene's setting and/or its participants. Typically it is a shot at the beginning (or, occasionally, end) of a scene indicating where, and sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place.

EVS Manufacturer’s name for an industry standard video disk recorder used for slow motion replays and creating highlights packages.

[edit] F

Feed Television or radio program transmitted, or fed, to Broadcast Partners.

Flash interview Brief interviews of racers done just before or immediately after the race. Often used as a term to describe an interview as part of the multilateral world feed

Floodlights are broad-beamed, high-intensity artificial lights often used to illuminate outdoor playing fields while an outdoor sports event is being held during low-light conditions.

FIS Fédération Internationale de Ski

Frame rate, or Frame frequency, is the measurement of the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. The term applies equally well to computer graphics, video cameras, film cameras, and motion capture systems. Frame rate is most often expressed in frames per second (FPS) and in progressive-scan monitors as hertz (Hz).

Free-To-Air Channels No subscription fee is payable in order to view the channel. The majority of the channels on the digital terrestrial platform are free-to-air channels.

Frequency The number of cycles per second of wave signal. Measured in Hertz (Hz) or kilohertz (kHz) or MegaHertz (mHz).

Fly Case Production is a portable live video production systems with multicam monitoring, switching and communications. All components are shock-mounted in airline checkable heavy-duty cases.

[edit] G

Genlock (for Generator Lock) is a common technique where the video output of one source, or a specific reference signal, is used to synchronize other television picture sources together. The aim in video and digital audio applications is to ensure the coincidence of signals in time at a combining or mixing or switching point. When sources are synchronized in this way, they are said to be genlocked.

GHz - Gigahertz Thousand million cycles per second. The measurement for satellite frequencies.

GMT Greenwich Mean Time, which is constant and often used to determine event schedules and running orders, given that the value of GMT is a common medium and not affected by regional daylight saving adjustments

GRP Gross Rating Point. Often used as a measure of the overall weight of an advertising campaign. One rating point is numerically equivalent to one per cent of the target audience.

[edit] H

H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a standard for video compression, and is currently one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of high definition video. H.264 is perhaps best known as being one of the codec standards for Blu-ray Discs; all Blu-ray Disc players must be able to decode H.264. It is also widely used by streaming internet sources, such as videos from Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, and also various HDTV broadcasts over terrestrial (ATSC, SBTVD, DVB-T or DVB-T2), cable (DVB-C) and satellite (DVB-S and DVB-S2).

Hard Disk Recorder is a type of recording system that uses a high-capacity hard disk to record digital audio or digital video. Hard disk recording systems represent an alternative to more traditional reel-to-reel tape or cassette multitrack systems, and provide editing capabilities unavailable to tape recorders. The systems, which can be standalone or computer-based, typically include provisions for digital mixing and processing of the audio signal.

HB Host Broadcaster. A production company or local television network providing the basic television broadcast from a specific event, intended for integration with commentary teams from different rights holding nations, or for local integration with attending RHB.

HD/HDTV High Definition Television. High-resolution digital television combined with Dolby Digital Surround Sound

HDV is a format for recording and playback of high-definition video on a DV cassette tape.

Hertz (symbol: Hz) is a unit of frequency. It is defined as the number of cycles per second. It is the basic unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI), and is used worldwide in both general-purpose and scientific contexts. Hertz can be used to measure any periodic event; the most common uses for hertz are to describe radio and audio frequencies, more or less sinusoidal contexts in which case a frequency of 1 Hz is equal to one cycle per second.

High-definition video or HD video refers to any video system of higher resolution than standard-definition (SD) video, and most commonly involves display resolutions of 1280×720 pixels (720p) or 1920×1080 pixels (1080i/1080p). This article discusses the general concepts of high-definition video, as opposed to its specific applications in television broadcast (HDTV).

Household The social unit consisting of all individuals who live together, as occupants of the same domicile.

[edit] I

Injection Point Technical facility that allows Broadcast Partners to play back and send recorded footage.

Instant replay is a technology that allows broadcast of a previously occurring event using recorded video. This is most commonly used in sports; by on television to replay previous plays for the viewer, often from other angles than shown in the main broadcast, and also on video screens at live events. The footage is often played at a slow motion frame rate to allow more detailed analysis by the viewer and commentators. More advanced technology has allowed for more complex replays, such as pausing, and viewing the replay frame by frame.

Interactive television (generally known as iTV) describes a number of techniques that allow viewers to interact with television content as they view it.

Intercom intercom (intercommunication device), is a stand-alone electronic communications system intended for limited or private dialogue. Intercoms can be portable but are generally mounted permanently. Intercoms can incorporate connections to walkie talkies, telephones, cell phones and to other intercom systems over phone or data lines and switch electronic or electro-mechanical devices such as signal lights and door latches.

Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies.

IPTV Internet Protocol Television. A method of delivering television services via broadband.

ISDN Integrated Switched Digital Network. A telephone-like digital technology which permits better audio quality for transmission and a number of implementation types allowing digital data transfer.

[edit] J

Jib (camera) is a boom device with a camera on one end, and a counterweight and camera controls on the other. It operates like a see-saw, but with the balance point located close to the counterweight, so that the camera end of the arm can move through an extended arc. A jib permits the camera to be moved vertically, horizontally, or a combination of the two. A jib is often mounted on a tripod or similar support.

[edit] K

Ku band (pronounced "kay-yoo") is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies. This symbol refers to "K-under" (in the original German, "Kurz-unten", with the same meaning)—in other words, the band directly below the K-band. In radar applications, it ranges from 12 to 18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE Standard 521-2002. Ku band is primarily used for satellite communications.

[edit] L

Light is electromagnetic radiation, particularly radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400–700 nm, or perhaps 380–750 nm). In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not.

Linear video editing is the process of selecting, arranging and modifying the images and sound recorded on videotape whether captured by a video camera, generated from a computer graphics program or recorded in a studio. Until the advent of computer-based non-linear editing in the early 1990s "linear video editing" was simply called “video editing.”

Liquid Crystal Display LCD is the technology used for displays in notebook and other electronics devices. LCDs allow displays to be much thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. LCDs consume much less power than LED and gas-display displays because they work on the principle of blocking light rather than emitting it.

Live television or Live refers to television broadcast in real time or on a short tape delay basis. It is used in the local news.

Live-to-tape To pre-recorded program produced in real time, usually with a live audience, for later broadcast. Requires precisely timed pauses for insertion of station breaks and commercials at time of broadcast. Typically employed for network broadcast across multiple time zones. Also applies to live broadcasting which is simultaneously recorded for rebroadcast at a later time or date.

Local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic place, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines.

Long shot (sometimes referred to as a full shot or a wide shot) typically shows the entire object or human figure and is usually intended to place it in some relation to its surroundings. It has been suggested that long-shot ranges usually correspond to approximately what would be the distance between the front row of the audience and the stage in live theatre. It is now common to refer to a long shot as a "wide shot" because it often requires the use of a wide-angle lens. When a long shot is used to set up a location and its participants in film and video, it is called an establishing shot.

[edit] M

Market segmentation of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics that cause them to have similar product and/or service needs. A true market segment meets all of the following criteria: it is distinct from other segments (different segments have consumers with identical product and/or service needs are divided up into groups so they can be charged different amounts.

Mass market is a general business term describing the largest group of consumers for a specified industry product. It is the opposite extreme of the term niche market.

Media clip is a short segment of media, either an audio clip or a video clip.

Media server refers either to a dedicated computer appliance or to a specialized application software, ranging from an enterprise class machine providing video on demand, to, more commonly, a small personal computer or NAS (Network Attached Storage) for the home, dedicated for storing various digital media (meaning digital videos/movies, audio/music, and picture files).

Media Tribune Part of the stand specifically reserved for media such as written press, photographers, TV and radio commentators and observers. Accessible only with accreditation.

Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths ranging from 1mm - 1m, or frequencies between 0.3 GHz and 300 GHz.

Mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone, as well as cell phone, wireless phone, cellular phone, cell, cellular telephone, mobile telephone or cell telephone) is a long-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites.

Mobile Uplink or SNG A mobile communications unit for the purpose of remote broadcasting. Mobile units are usually vans equipped with advanced, two-way audio and video transmitters and receivers, using dish antennas that can be aimed at geostationary satellites.

MPEG The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) was formed by the ISO to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.

MPEG-4 is a patented collection of methods defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web (streaming media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, videophone) and broadcast television applications. MPEG-4 absorbs many of the features of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and other related standards, adding new features such as (extended) VRML support for 3D rendering, object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and VRML objects), support for externally-specified Digital Rights Management and various types of interactivity. AAC (Advanced Audio Codec) was standardized as an adjunct to MPEG-2 (as Part 7) before MPEG-4 was issued.

Multilateral The term used to describe the international world feed, broadcast signal or running order, where the distribution of a signal or service is designed for the international market.

Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) is a broadcasting service that can be offered via existing GSM and UMTS cellular networks. The infrastructure offers an option to use an uplink channel for interaction between the service and the user, which is not a straightforward issue in usual broadcast networks, as for example conventional digital television is only a one-way (unidirectional) system. MBMS uses multicast distribution in the core network instead of point-to-point links for each end device.

Multi-mode optical fiber (multimode fiber or MM fiber or fibre) is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over shorter distances, such as within a building or on a campus. Typical multimode links have data rates of 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s over link lengths of up to 600 meters—more than sufficient for the majority of premises applications.

Multiplexing (also known as muxing) is a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share an expensive resource. For example, in telecommunications, several phone calls may be transferred using one wire. It originated in telegraphy, and is now widely applied in communications.

[edit] N

Narrowcasting is the transmission of data to a specific list of recipients. Cable television is an example of broadcast model in which the signals are transmitted everywhere and anyone with an antenna can receive them. The Internet uses both a broadcast and a narrowcast model. Most Web sites are on a broadcast model since anyone with Internet access can view the sites.

Niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing on; Therefore the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the demographics that is intending to impact.

NATS Natural Sound – Background sound of the TV image Normally found on channel 2

Non-linear editing (NLE) for film and television postproduction is a modern editing method which involves being able to access any frame in a video clip with the same ease as any other. This method is similar in concept to the "cut and paste" technique used in film editing. Non-linear, methods began to appear with the introduction of digital video technology.

NSA National Ski Association

[edit] O

OB Van/ Truck Outside Broadcast Vehicle. Mobile production television control room used to produce remote coverage of an event, using a range of standard broadcast facilities. Sometimes additional vehicles are used as dedicated videotape or graphics support vehicles, and are designed to integrate with the principal OB vehicle.

OC Organising Committee

Offline editing is the film and television post-production process in which raw footage is copied and edited, without affecting the camera original film or tape. Once a programme has been completed in offline, the original media will be conformed, or on-lined, in the online editing stage.

Online editing is generally the final stage of video editing. When the offline edit is complete, the pictures are re-assembled at full or 'online' resolution. An edit decision list or equivalent is used to carry over the cuts and dissolves from the offline.

Optical fiber cable An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.

Optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber, and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so that light can pass. Most optical fiber connectors are spring-loaded: The fiber endfaces of the two connectors are pressed together, resulting in a direct glass to glass or plastic to plastic contact, avoiding any glass to air or plastic to air interfaces, which would result in higher connector losses.

[edit] P

Pay-per-view (often abbreviated PPV) offers a system by which a television audience can purchase events to view on TV-monitors via private telecast of that event to their homes. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it, as opposed to video on demand systems, which allow viewers to see the event at any time.

Panning refers to the horizontal movement or rotation of a still or video camera, or the scanning of a subject horizontally on video or a display device. Panning a camera results in a motion similar to that of someone shaking their head "no".

Parabolic microphone is a microphone that uses a parabolic reflector to collect and focus sound waves onto a receiver, in much the same way that a parabolic antenna (e.g., satellite dish) does with radio waves.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

Pixel The smallest distinguishable and resolvable area in a video image. A single point on the screen. In digital video, a single sample of the picture. Derived from the words picture element.

Platform A term encompassing the various ways in which a home can receive television. The six platforms are: analogue terrestrial; analogue satellite; analogue cable; digital terrestrial; digital satellite; digital cable.

Playout is a term for the transmission of radio or TV channels from the broadcaster into the networks that delivers them to the audience. Those networks can consist of terrestrial transmitters for analogue or digital radio and TV, cable networks or satellites (either for direct reception, DTH, or intended for cable headends).

Production Element A Production Element is a piece of audio that is used in the final audio mix. This may include commercials, music, sound effects, audio effects (eg echo) station id or program signatures or announcements.

Pre-production is the process of preparing all the elements involved in a film, play, sport competition or other performance.

Professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread) is a high-end device for recording electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that records the images on film). Originally developed for use in television studios, they are now commonly used for corporate and educational videos, music videos, and direct-to-video movies.

Point cloud is a set of vertices in a three-dimensional coordinate system. These vertices are usually defined by X, Y, and Z coordinates, and typically are intended to be representative of the external surface of an object. Point clouds are most often created by 3D scanners. These devices measure in an automatic way a large number of points on the surface of an object, and often output a point cloud as a data file. The point cloud represents the set of points that the device has measured. As the result of a 3D scanning process point clouds are used for many purposes, including to create 3D CAD models for manufactured parts, metrology/quality inspection, and a multitude of visualization, animation, rendering and mass customization applications.

Portable multimedia player (PMP), sometimes referred to as a MP3 player, is a consumer electronics device that is capable of storing and playing digital media. Digital audio players (DAP) that can also display images and play videos are PMPs. Like DAPs, the data is typically stored on a hard drive, microdrive, or flash memory.

Post-production occurs in the making of motion pictures, television programs, radio programs, videos, audio recordings, photography and digital art. It is the general term for all stages of production occurring after the actual end of shooting and/or recording the completed work.

[edit] R

Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. This can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.

Ratings The rating of a show is the percentage of households watching a particular program against the total number of television households in the country.

Raw image format A camera raw image file RAW contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image or motion picture film scanner. Raw files are so named because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor. Normally, the image is processed by a raw converter in a wide-gamut internal colorspace where precise adjustments can be made before conversion to a "positive" file format such as TIFF or JPEG for storage, printing, or further manipulation, which often encodes the image in a device-dependent colorspace.

RGB The three primary colour signals: red, green, and blue (RGB) that together convey all necessary picture information. In normal high definition digital video, these three primary components are scaled such that the extreme values are code words 040h (64) and 3ACh (940) in a 10-bit representation.

RHB Rights Holding Broadcaster(s). RHB may attend selected events to allow them to customise their programming by a method of integration with the host feed. RHB also may remain in their home nations and produce television shows based on studio presentation and commentary integrated with the incoming host feed.

Remote A broadcast coming from outside the studio.

Rundown Sheet is a simple review of the script for the TV Production. It breaks the show into "blocks" split by breaks and it lists all the different pieces of the show and what should happen during these pieces (e.g. a graphic will display, or a video tape will be played). This is useful for the crew so that they do not have to read through an entire script during production, they have the show in a simplified form.

Running Time How long it takes a show to go from start to finish. Often abbreviated TRT (total running time).

[edit] S

Safe area is a term used in television production to describe the areas of the television picture that can be seen on television screens.

Satellite truck is a mobile satellite Earth station typically mounted on a truck chassis as a platform allowing satellite transmission from any location that the vehicle can reach provided a line of site (direct view) to the desired satellite is available.

Satellite television is television delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box. In many areas of the world it provides a wide range of channels and services, often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.

Satellite relay is an active or passive satellite repeater that relays signals between two terminals.

Scoreboard is a large board for publicly displaying the score in a competition, game or match.

Serial digital interface (SDI) refers to a family of video interfaces standardized by SMPTE.[1] For example, ITU-R BT.656 and SMPTE 259M define digital video interfaces used for broadcast-grade video. A related standard, known as high-definition serial digital interface (HD-SDI), is standardized in SMPTE 292M; this provides a nominal data rate of 1.485 Gbit/s.

Set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal into content which is then displayed on the television screen.

Shares The share is the percentage of households watching a show compared to the total number of households that are watching television at a given moment in time.

Skycam or SpiderCam are the trademarked brandname of a patented, computer-controlled, stabilized, flying camera system. The system, similar to Steadicam, but maneuvered through three dimensions in the open space over a playing area of a stadium or arena by computer-controlled cable-drive system, is responsible for bringing video-game-like camera angles to television sports coverage.

Single-mode optical fiber (SMF) (monomode optical fiber, single-mode optical waveguide, or unimode fiber) is an optical fiber designed to carry only a single ray of light (mode). This ray of light often contains a variety of different wavelengths. Although the ray travels parallel to the length of the fiber, it is often called the transverse mode since its electromagnetic vibrations occur perpendicular (transverse) to the length of the fiber.

Slow motion or slowmo is an effect in film-making whereby time appears to be slowed down. Typically this style is achieved when each film frame is captured at a rate much faster than it will be played back. When replayed at normal speed, time appears to be moving more slowly.

SMPTE 259M is a standard published by SMPTE which "... describes a 10-bit serial digital interface operating at 143/270/360 Mb/s." The goal of SMPTE 259M is to define a Serial Digital Interface (based on a coax cable) this interface is usually called SDI or SD-SDI. There are 4 bitrates defined, which are normally used to transfer the following standard video formats.

Sound is a travelling wave which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations.

Soundtrack refers to three related concepts: recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film or TV show; and the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.

Specialty channel (or speciality channel) is a television channel which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic.

Sports channels are television specialty channels (usually available exclusively through cable and satellite) broadcast sporting events, usually live, and when not broadcasting events, sports news and other related programming.

SSM Super Slow Motion, a broadcast industry standard to describe a video processing system that delivers individual frames at high speed, typically 75 frames per second, or a field rate of 150/s. Providing that both a camera system and the recording system are operating at 150/s the replayed signal is of very fine quality, and highly suited for sports broadcasting

Stand Up A commentary or report by a TV correspondent seen on camera, usually at the scene of the action. Used to open, close, or bridge the elements of a report.

Standard-definition television (or SDTV) refers to television systems that have a resolution that meets standards but not considered either enhanced definition or high definition. The term is usually used in reference to digital television, in particular when broadcasting at the same (or similar) resolution as analog systems.

Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by, and normally presented to, an end-user while it is being delivered by a streaming provider (the term "presented" is used in a general sense that includes audio or video playback). The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself.

[edit] T

Talent The paid staff who are seen or heard on the air, often the interviewer.

Target market or target audience is a group of customers that the business has decided to aim its marketing efforts and ultimately its merchandise. A well-defined target market is the first element to a marketing strategy. The target market and the marketing mix variables of product, place (distribution), promotion and price are the two elements of a marketing mix strategy that determine the success of a product in the marketplace.

Terrestrial Television is a term which refers to modes of television broadcasting which do not involve satellite transmission or via underground cables.

Television (TV) is a widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually accompanied by sound.

Television news refers to disseminating current events via the medium of television. "News bulletins" or "newscasts" are programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on world, national, regional or local news events. Television news is very image-based, showing video of many of the events that are reported.

Television news channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content.

Television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations.

Television set (usually called a television, TV set, or simply TV) is a device used to view television broadcasts, not to be confused with monitors, which are unable to independently tune into over-the-air broadcasts.

Television standards conversion is the process of changing one type of TV system to another. The most common is from NTSC to PAL or the other way around. This is done so TV programs in one nation may be viewed in a nation with a different standard. The TV video is fed through a Video standards converter device that changes the video to a different video system.

Television studio is an installation in which television or video productions take place, either for live television, for recording live to tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for postproduction.

TGA File Format, often referred to as TARGA File Format, is a raster graphics file format. It was the native format of Truevision Inc.'s TARGA and VISTA boards, which were the first graphic cards for IBM-compatible PCs to support Highcolor/truecolor display. This family of graphic cards was intended for professional computer image synthesis and video editing with PCs; for this reason, usual resolutions of TGA image files match those of the NTSC and PAL video formats. TARGA is an acronym for Truevision Advanced Raster Graphics Adapter; TGA is an initialism for Truevision Graphics Adapter. Today, most people refer to the format as the "TARGA File Format".

Time code (TC) is a sequence of numeric codes generated at regular intervals by a timing system. Time codes are used extensively for synchronization, and for logging material in recorded media. SOM is also a related term (in the broadcast industry) and stands for 'Start of Message' or 'Start of Media' also known as Time Code (TC) in. Similarly EOM stands for 'End of Message' or 'End of Media' also known as Time Code (TC) out.

Timing The timing clock is activated when a skier passes through a timing beam or pivoting, knee-high wand to begin his or her run.

Time Offset Table TOT gives information relating to the present time and date and local time offset. This information is given in a separate table due to the frequent updating of the time information.

Title Safe Area is, in television broadcasting, a rectangular area which is far enough in from the four edges, such that text or graphics show neatly: with a margin and without distortion. This is applied against a worst case of on-screen location and display type. Typically corners would require more space from the edges.

Total Viewer Hours measures the number of hours of Olympic programming that have captured the attention of the global television viewing audience during the period of the Olympic Games. Viewer Hours per programme is measured by multiplying the duration of the programme by the number of viewers in the audience. Total Viewer Hours for the Olympic Games and Olympic Winter Games is the sum of all Viewer Hours per programme.

Transition Replay Wipe The short animated movement, usually from left to right to signify the transition from live pictures to a replay or sequence of replays. The same applies in the reverse direction, from the last replayed item back to live pictures.

Triaxial cable A specialized form of coaxial cable, circular in cross-section and consisting of (a) a center conductor, often a solid wire but sometimes braided.

Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs.

[edit] U

Upconversion or a video scaler is a device for converting video signals from one size or resolution to another: usually "upscaling" or "upconverting" a video signal from a low resolution (e.g. standard definition) to one of higher resolution (e.g. high definition television).

Uplink (UL or U/L) is the portion of a communications link used for the transmission of signals from an Earth terminal to a satellite or to an airborne platform. An uplink is the inverse of a downlink. An uplink or downlink is distinguished from reverse link or forward linkA telecommunications link is generally one of several types of information transmission paths accomplished by communication satellites to connect two points on earth.

Unilateral Signal An individual or single transmission path intended for a specific destination or territory. Unilateral Broadcasters is also a term given to RHB as well as unilateral facilities for services and equipment they may need.

UPS Uninterrupted Power Supply. Used for critical broadcast or event deliveries when the primary source of electricity is supplied from the local grid. Should there be a power failure, the UPS protects the demand, first by a series of heavy duty batteries to supplement the power and then by electricity from a diesel generator. The process is a seamless task that will not disturb or interrupt the power supply for the broadcast or live event operation.

[edit] V

Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion.

Video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition, initially developed by the television industry but now common in other applications as well.

Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer piece. In digital format are often found on the internet. The term is also more loosely used to mean any short video less than the length of a traditional television programme.

Video compression refers to reducing the quantity of data used to represent digital video images, and is a combination of spatial image compression and temporal motion compensation. Video compression is an example of the concept of source coding in Information theory. This article deals with its applications: compressed video can effectively reduce the bandwidth required to transmit video via terrestrial broadcast, via cable TV, or via satellite TV services.

Video Control The task of video controller is the same as the gatekeepers. The video controller will control that the gates are passed correctly.

Video monitor also called a broadcast monitor, broadcast reference monitor or just reference monitor, is a device similar to a television, used to monitor the output of a video-generating device, such as a media playout server, IRD, video camera, VCR, or DVD player.

Video On Demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch/listen to video content on demand. VOD systems either stream content through a set-top box, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder, personal video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time. The majority of cable- and telco-based television providers offer both VOD streaming, such as pay-per-view, whereby a user buys or selects a movie or television program and it begins to play on the television set almost instantaneously, or downloading to a DVR rented from the provider, for viewing in the future.

Video server is a computer based device (also called a 'host') dedicated to delivering video. Being multi-application devices, a video server is designed for one purpose; provisioning video, often for broadcasters. A professional grade video server records, stores, and plays back multiple streams of video without any degradation in the video signal.

Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film.

Video Tape Recorder (VTR), is a tape recorder that can record video material. The video cassette recorder (VCR), where the videotape is enclosed in a user-friendly videocassette shell, is the most familiar type of VTR known to consumers.

Vision mixer (also called video switcher, video mixer or production switcher) is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases composite (mix) video sources together and add special effects. This is similar to what a mixing console does for audio.

Video podcast is a term used for the online delivery of video on demand video clip content. The term is used to distinguish between podcasts which most commonly contain audio files and those referring to the distribution of video where the RSS feed is used as a non-linear TV channel to which consumers can subscribe using a PC, TV, set-top box, media center or mobile multimedia device. Web television series are often distributed as video podcasts.

VNR A Video New Release. The television equivalent of a news release.

VO Voice Over The term voice-over refers to a production technique where a non-diegetic voice is broadcast live or pre-recorded in radio, television, film, theatre and/or presentation. The voice-over may be spoken by someone who also appears on-screen in other segments or it may be performed by a specialist. Voice-over is also commonly referred to as "off camera" commentary. Normally found on channel 1

Voxel (volumetric pixel or, more correctly, Volumetric Picture Element) is a volume element, representing a value on a regular grid in three dimensional space. This is analogous to a pixel, which represents 2D image data in a bitmap (which is sometimes referred to as a pixmap). As with pixels in a bitmap, voxels themselves do not typically have their position (their coordinates) explicitly encoded along with their values. Instead, the position of a voxel is inferred based upon its position relative to other voxels (i.e., its position in the data structure that makes up a single volumetric image).

[edit] W

Webcams are video capturing devices connected to computers or computer networks, often using USB or, if they connect to networks, ethernet or Wi-Fi. They are well known for their low manufacturing costs and flexible applications.

Webcast is a media file distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is “broadcasting” over the Internet.

Web television (Web TV) is an emerging genre of digital entertainment that is distinct from traditional broadcast television. Delivered originally online via broadband and mobile networks, Web television shows, or Web series, are short-form in nature (2-9 minutes per episode), episodic, and produced in seasons.

Wipe is a gradual spatial transition from one image to another. One image is replaced by another with a distinct edge that forms a shape. A simple edge, an expanding circle, or the turning of a page are all examples.

Wireless communication is the transfer of information over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or "wires". The distances involved may be short (a few meters as in television remote control) or long (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). When the context is clear, the term is often shortened to "wireless". Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.

WirelessHD is an industry-led effort to define a specification for the next generation wireless digital network interface for wireless high-definition signal transmission for consumer electronics products.

Wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that allows wireless communication devices to connect to a wireless network using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or related standards. The WAP usually connects to a wired network, and can relay data between the wireless devices (such as computers or printers) and wired devices on the network.

[edit] Y

Yellow Jackets Industry standard protective cable trays, used for indoor and outdoor use to identify a cable path in a safe and protective jacket. Usually positioned at ground level, where the cable path crosses an area also used for public access

YouTube is a video sharing website on which users can upload and share videos, and view them in MPEG-4 format.

[edit] Z

Zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements with the ability to vary its focal length (and thus angle of view), as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens. They are commonly used with still, video, motion picture cameras, projectors, some binoculars, microscopes, telescopes, telescopic sights, and other optical instruments.

Zooming is a method of decreasing (narrowing) the apparent angle of view of a digital photographic or video image. Digital zoom is accomplished by cropping an image down to a centered area with the same aspect ratio as the original, and usually also interpolating the result back up to the pixel dimensions of the original. It is accomplished electronically, without any adjustment of the camera's optics, and no optical resolution is gained in the process.

[edit] Others

3G Networks Third Generation - Generic name for third generation networks

4:3 standard The 4:3 ratio (generally named as "Four-Three", "Four-by-Three", or "Four-to-Three") for standard television has been in use since television's origins and many computer monitors employ the same aspect ratio. 4:3 is the aspect ratio used for 35 mm films in the silent era and used today for film production under the name Super 35.

1080p/24 A progressively scanned high definition video format with 1920 pixels and 1080 lines and a nominal frame rate of 24 frames per second

16:9 (generally named as: "Sixteen-Nine", "Sixteen-by-Nine" or "Sixteen-to-Nine") is the international standard format of HDTV as used in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Japan, South Korea, and the United States, as well as in Europe on HDTV, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television (EDTV) PALplus.

[edit] Also see

[edit] Gallery Of TV Glossary

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