General Definitions

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[edit] A

Acromion process, is an anatomical feature on the shoulder blade (scapula), together with the coracoid process extending laterally over the shoulder joint.

Acceleration is the change in velocity over time.

Advanced Cardiac Life Support or (ACLS) refers to a set of clinical interventions for the urgent treatment of cardiac arrest and other life threatening medical emergencies, as well as the knowledge and skills to deploy those interventions.

Advanced Life Support (ALS) implies that an emergency medical technician (EMT) is capable of performing advanced life support skills as either an EMT-A (Advanced), EMT-I (Intermediate) or an EMT-P (Paramedic), commonly referred to simply as a paramedic or medic. ALS (in most cases) refers to the skills and knowledge that a practitioner possess. The ALS provider may perform advanced procedures and skills on a patient involving invasive and non-invasive procedures.

Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) is a training program for doctors and Advanced Practice/Critical Care Paramedics in the management of acute trauma cases, developed by the American College of Surgeons. The program has been adopted worldwide in over 40 countries,[1] sometimes under the name of Early Management of Severe Trauma (EMST), especially outside North America. Its goal is to teach a simplified and standardized approach to trauma patients. Originally designed for emergency situations where only one doctor and one nurse are present, ATLS is now widely accepted as the standard of care for initial assessment and treatment in trauma centers. The premise of the ATLS program is to treat the greatest threat to life first. It also advocates that the lack of a definitive diagnosis and a detailed history should not slow the application of indicated treatment for life-threatening injury, with the most time-critical interventions performed early. However, there is mixed evidence to show that ATLS improves patient outcomes.

Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS), is a medically-approved, unified system used to dispatch appropriate aid to medical emergencies including systematized caller interrogation and pre-arrival instructions. AMPDS is developed and marketed by Priority Dispatch Corporation which also has similar products for police and fire. The output gives a main response category - A (Immediately Life Threatening), B (Urgent Call), C (Routine Call).

Assisted GPS, generally abbreviated as A-GPS, is a system which can, under certain conditions, improve the startup performance, or TTFF (Time To First Fix) of a GPS satellite-based positioning system. It is used extensively with GPS-capable cellular phones.

Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. It does this by utilizing frequencies that are not used by a voice telephone call.[1] A splitter - or microfilter - allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL service and voice calls at the same time. ADSL can generally only be distributed over short distances from the central office, typically less than 4 kilometres (2 mi),[2] but has been known to exceed 8 kilometres (5 mi) if the originally laid wire gauge allows for farther distribution.

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object.

Air (as in Air & Form) This category of judging takes into account the quality of takeoff and the height and distance of the jump.

Air ambulance is an aircraft used for emergency medical assistance in situations where either a traditional ambulance cannot reach the scene easily or quickly enough, or the patient needs to be transported over a distance or terrain that makes air transportation the most practical transport. Air ambulance crews are supplied with equipment that enables them to provide medical treatment to a critically injured or ill patient. Common equipment for air ambulances includes ventilators, medication, an ECG and monitoring unit, CPR equipment, and stretchers.

Air (Moguls) The aerial manoeuvre or jump performed during a Mogul run.

Alternates / Substitutes A possible replacement for an accredited competitor. An <alternate / substitute> competitor will be registered and will have an accreditation card that will allow him/her access to the training venue(s), but he / she cannot stay in the Olympic village and has no access to the fields of play at the competition venue(s).

Angle (in full, plane angle) is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. The magnitude of the angle is the "amount of rotation" that separates the two rays, and can be measured by considering the length of circular arc swept out when one ray is rotated about the vertex to coincide with the other. Where there is no possibility of confusion, the term "angle" is used interchangeably for both the geometric configuration itself and for its angular magnitude (which is simply a numerical quantity).

[edit] B

Biceps brachii is a muscle located on the upper arm. The biceps has several functions, the most important being to rotate the forearm (supination) and to flex the elbow.

Bib number Competitor’s number for each event.

[edit] C

Category The FIS abbreviation for the category of competition specific to the sector (see table): Example for all sectors: WC (World Cup), WSC (World Ski Championships), FIS (FIS race)

Classification Arrangement of symbols indicating concepts into classes and their subdivisions to express generic relations or other types of relations between them. (ISO 5127:2001)

Clear A verbal command indicating that the course is ready for the next run.

Clock drift refers to several related phenomena where a clock does not run at the exact right speed compared to another clock. That is, after some time the clock "drifts apart" from the other clock.

Coating consists of spreading a layer of polyurethane resin directly onto the textile fabric. Coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. In many cases coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion, wetability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and scratch resistance. Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids.

Cookies – small, square-ish pieces of wood that have a rope fastened through a hole in the middle. Cookies are used to secure the bottom of an A Safety Net (bolt line) to the snow pack. Usually, the net crew leader installs cookies by drilling a hole into the snow pack with an ice auger. Inserting the cookie into the hole with the rope extending to the surface, and then securing the cookie in place by packing the hole with snow. The cookie’s rope is tied to the bolt line to prevent the racer from submerging under the A-net.

Contour line (also isoline or isarithm) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value. In cartography, a contour line (often just called a "contour") joins points of equal elevation (height) above a given level, such as mean sea level.

Competition The competition is from the start of the first event of a sport to the completion of the last event of a sport, excluding the opening and closing ceremonies.

“Competitor Ready! 3, 2, 1, Go!” Mogul Start Command.

Course ‘Inside of the Fences’ Course Specification according to IF

Course Hold a brief stoppage of the competition until the Jury feels conditions on course are ready (can be due to a competitior down, poor course conditions, an obstruction on the course)

Codex The unique identification number for each competition with the sector i.e. 8207 (latest details can be found in the calendar section of the FIS website [1])

Cup Standing A series of points given by rank in a competition which is part of a Cup or series of competitions in a geographical area.

Cut and Fill in snow or earthmoving is the process of constructing a ski slope, railway, road or canal whereby the amount of material or snow from cuts roughly matches the amount of fill needed to make nearby embankments, so minimizing the amount of construction labor and machine hours.

Current season All FIS World Cup competitions taking place after July in the year prior to the Games.

[edit] D

Data A reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. (ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993)

Date A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 November 2009" is ten days after "14 November 2009" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the time zone in which it is observed.

Degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1⁄360 of a full rotation; one degree is equivalent to π/180 radians.

Degree of difficulty (DD) Numeric value that represents the difficulty of the manoeuvre and is used as a multiplier when calculating the total score in Aerials.

Did not start (DNS) An indicator given to a competitor who was on the start list, but did not compete in the competition.

DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is that country's ISO member body.


Return to General Definitions

Discipline is a branch of a sport comprising one or several events

Disqualified (DSQ) A ruling by the Jury that a competitor has broken the rules of the sport and cannot be considered for a placing in the competition.

DSL or xDSL is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, but as of 2009 the term digital subscriber line has been widely adopted as a more marketing-friendly term for ADSL, the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL. DSL can be used at the same time and on the same telephone line with regular telephone, as it uses high frequency bands, while regular telephone uses low frequency. The download speed of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kilobits per second (kbit/s) to 24,000 kbit/s, depending on DSL technology, line conditions and service-level implementation. Typically, upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and equal to download speed for the rarer Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL).

Dye Colored liquid vegetable dye sprayed in a narrow line at the side of the track ("the line") that gives the skiers definition of the course. Definition lines are also sprayed on the track at right angles near jumps and other severe changes in the pitch of the course, or where visibility for skiers may be poor.  Applied by the Dye Crew.

[edit] E

Egress A path or opening for going out; an exit.

Elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint the ginglymus or hinge joint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow joint: the humerus of the upper arm, and the paired radius and ulna of the forearm. The bony prominence at the very tip of the elbow is the olecranon process of the ulna, and the inner aspect of the elbow is called the antecubital fossa.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is a term used in various countries to denote a healthcare provider trained to provide pre-hospital emergency medical services. The precise meaning of the term varies by jurisdiction, but in many countries EMTs respond to emergency calls, perform certain medical procedures and transport patients to hospital in accordance with protocols and guidelines established by physician medical directors. They may work in an ambulance service (paid or voluntary), as a member of technical rescue teams, or as part of an allied service such as a fire or police department.

Emulsify or emulsion is a mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids. Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. Although the terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably, emulsion tends to imply that both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquid. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).

Event “An event, being a competition in an Olympic sport or in one of its disciplines and resulting in a ranking, gives rise to the awarding of medals and diplomas.” (Olympic Charter, paragraph 52.3.1)

An event consists of one or several steps or parts of one sport discipline. The number of the event steps (one or more) leads to the final step at which medals are awarded. There are 6 events in the Olympic Freestyle Skiing programme as follows:

Eventname Name of Event as published in FIS calendar; Example: Regional Winter Series.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) A general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages. It is capable of describing many different kinds of data. NOTE: Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet.

Extrinsic: Not forming an essential or inherent part of a thing; extraneous. Originating from the outside; external.

[edit] F

Fiber, also spelled fibre, is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. They are very important in the biology of both plants and animals, for holding tissues together. Human uses for fibers are diverse. They can be spun into filaments, string or rope, used as a component of composite materials, or matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. Synthetic fibers can be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but natural fibers enjoy some benefits, such as comfort, over their man-made counterparts.

Final The phase of competition following the qualifications which determines the medallists.

Finish Area the deceleration zone beyond the finish line at 0 degree angle

FIS Aerial Seed List List published by FIS, which shows the average of the best two FIS World Cup points of each current Aerial competitor. This list is used to extract the seed list, which determines the “A” and “B” seeds in each competition.

FIS code A unique seven digit numeric code assigned by FIS to identify each competitor. The competitor’s personal and unique FIS code. Every competitor must have a valid FIS code to participate in a FIS race. This code is published on the FIS list, or in exceptional cases between the publication of lists may have been provided to the TD or Organisers by the FIS Office in writing.

FIS Freestyle Coordinator The FIS Freestyle Coordinator is responsible for the overall management of FIS freestyle skiing activities.

FIS Points List The currently recognised world-ranking list for freestyle skiing. The list takes into account the average of each athlete’s best two results in a twelve-month period.

FIS World Championships A biannual championship in which a maximum of four competitors per nation/gender/event can compete for a world champion title.

FIS World Cup The FIS international series of events, which take place each season typically during August, December, January, February and March.

FIS World Cup standings A competitiors accumulation of points over a World Cup season.

Flight plan Form distributed to team captains on which they indicate the jumps to be performed.

Forerunner A non-competing competitor that performs prior to the start of the event, and is used to test all official systems and allow the judges an opportunity for practice.

Force Majeure (French for "superior force"), also known as cas fortuit (French) or casus fortuitus (Latin), is a common clause in contracts which essentially frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties, such as a war, strike, riot, crime, or an event described by the legal term "act of God" (e.g., flooding, earthquake, volcano), prevents one or both parties from fulfilling their obligations under the contract. However, force majeure is not intended to excuse negligence or other malfeasance of a party, as where non-performance is caused by the usual and natural consequences of external forces (e.g., predicted rain stops an outdoor event), or where the intervening circumstances are specifically contemplated.

Form The quality of execution of a manoeuvre or run.

Freestyle Discipline = Is one of the 5 Olympic Skiing Disciplines of the International Ski Federation

FOP = Field Of Play includes Start Area, the Course and the Finish Area

Full homologation course is approved without further need for inspections.

[edit] G

Gate Key – a tool comprising a short open-slotted length of tubular steel used to screw hinged gate poles into holes drilled in the snow.  Gate Keys have two teeth at the end of the tube which slip over and fit into the hinge collar on the screw-in gate pole.(Right hand thread)

Geographic information systems (GIS), or geographical information system, is any system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that are linked to location. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. GIS systems are used in cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, utility management, natural resource management, photogrammetry, geography, urban planning, emergency management, navigation, and localized search engines.

Georeference something means to define its existence in physical space. That is, establishing its location in terms of map projections or coordinate systems. The term is used both when establishing the relation between raster or vector images and coordinates but also when determining the spatial location of other geographical features. Examples would include establishing the correct position of an aerial photograph within a map or finding the geographical coordinates of a place name or street address. This procedure is thus imperative to data modeling in the field of Geographic information systems (GIS) and other cartographic methods.

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based global navigation satellite system. It provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth. GPS is made up of three parts: between 24 and 32 satellites orbiting the Earth, four control and monitoring stations on Earth, and the GPS receivers owned by users. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that are used by GPS receivers to provide three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) plus the time.

Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS, is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale). GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury, and the scale is now used by first aid, EMS and doctors as being applicable to all acute medical and trauma patients.

Golden hour (medicine) In emergency medicine, the golden hour refers to a time period lasting from a few minutes to several hours following traumatic injury being sustained by a casualty, during which there is the highest likelihood that prompt medical treatment will prevent death. It is well established that the victim's chances of survival are greatest if they receive care within a short period of time after a severe injury, however, there is no evidence to suggest that survival rates drop off after 60 minutes. Some have come to use the term to refer to the core principle of rapid intervention in trauma cases, rather than the narrow meaning of a critical one-hour time period.

Gradient Angle of the slope.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format that was introduced by CompuServe in 1987 and has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability.

G-force A physical force equivalent to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during rapid changes of direction or velocity. Skiers experience G-forces as they turn, absorb moguls, rollers and compressions and the landing of a jump or stopping.

Gravitation or Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which objects with mass attract one another. In everyday life, gravitation is most commonly thought of as the agency which lends weight to objects with mass.

Gravitational acceleration is the acceleration of an object caused by the force of gravity from another object. In the absence of any other forces, any object will accelerate in a gravitational field at the same rate, regardless of the mass of the object. On the surface of the Earth, all objects fall with an acceleration of somewhere between 9.78 and 9.82 m/s² depending on latitude, with a standard gravity value of exactly 9.80665 m/s², (approx. 32.174 ft/s2).

[edit] H

Hatch marks, sometimes also called hash marks, or tick marks, are a form of mathematical notation.

Heat The finals in Ski Cross are divided into heats with 4 skiers in each heat.

High score The higher of the two jump scores in Aerials. Used in Aerial tie-breaking.

Homologation is a technical term, for "to agree", which is generally used in English to signify the granting of approval by an official authority.

Homologation number The the number assigned to an approved homologation application.

Humerus is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Anatomically, it connects the scapula and the ulna.

[edit] I

ICR = International Competition Rules, Cape Town (RSA) Version 2008

In-run In Aerials the skiers go down an in-run which ends in a take-off ramp (the jump).

IF = International Federation, in this case International Ski Federation (FIS)

Intermodal Transport of freight by two or modes of transportation. Examples are: ship-rail, rail-truck.

Ingress The act of entering.

Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction.

Inclinometer, known in many fields as an clinometer, is a common tool used in skiing to measure slope, vertical angles, and – in combination with distance measurements – elevation change or vertical drop.

[edit] J

Judge A FIS official who evaluates the performance of a competitor.

Judges protocol A report used by the Score Verifier to compare the marks recorded on the judges cards with those printed by the results system.

Jump (first jump/second jump) One of two rounds of Aerial competition.

Jump code A textual code that is built using predefined letters that describes the manoeuvre to be performed.

[edit] K

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a light, strong para-aramid synthetic fiber, related to other aramids.

Kicker The specially constructed ramp of snow from which aerialists perform their manoeuvres.

Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. Knitting consists of loops called stitches pulled through each other. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them.

Knoll The line that separates the Table from the landing hill on an Aerial site.

[edit] L

Lamination In the process of lamination, membrane is bonded to the fabric with adhesive by applying pressure and heat.

Landing The specially prepared slope on which aerialists land.

Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses.

Lift Capacity Per Hour The number of people who can ride up the mountain on a lift in one hour. For example, a 2,600 lift capacity per hour means that the ski area's lifts can transport 2,600 skiers per hour at maximum capacity.

Lyrca Spandex—or elastane—is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major non-synthetic competitor.

[edit] M

Metre (or meter), symbol m, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). Originally intended to be one ten-millionth of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole, its definition of has been periodically refined to reflect growing knowledge of metrology. Since 1983, it is defined as the distance travelled by light in a complete vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second.

Metre per second Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. This is the main unit of speed. The official SI symbolic abbreviation is m·s−1, or equivalently, m/s; although the abbreviation mps is sometimes used colloquially, but is incorrect according to the BIPM. Where kilometres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in terms of metres per second, where 1 km/s is equivalent to 103 metres per second.

Metrology (from Ancient Greek metron (measure) and logos (study of)) is the science of measurement. Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement.

Microfibers Micro fibers in textiles refer to sub-denier fiber (such as polyester drawn to 0.5 dn).

Microporous and non-porous coating or lamination are used in fabrics. There are two mechanisms to make coated or laminated fabrics waterproof and moisture permeable. Microporous coating or lamination has very small pores that are bigger than vapor and still much smaller than a raindrop (the drop's diameter is larger than 3.0 micrometers = 3.0 micrometer. This means that the perspiration vapor (the vapor's diameter is approximately 0.0004 micrometer) from your skin can pass through the fabric and yet rain cannot penetrate into the garment. Microporous coatings (the diameter of the microporous coating ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer). Waterproof and moisture permeable fabrics can also be created using a nonporous coating or lamination. A nonporous coating or lamination utilizes the polymer's molecular movement (micro Brownian movement) to efficiently absorb perspiration vapor and disperse it throughout the fabric. 1 micrometer = 1/1,000 millimeter.

[edit] N

Nation The three letter FIS code for the organising nation

Natural fibers are fibers made from plant, animal and mineral sources. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin.

NSA National Ski Association

Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. It is used in a wide variety of applications, such as in wetsuits, laptop sleeves, orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc.), electrical insulation, liquid and sheet applied elastomeric membranes or flashings, and car fan belts. Neoprene is the trade name used by DuPont Performance Elastomers.

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers known generically as polyamides and first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers.

[edit] O

On Course A verbal command indicating that the competitior has started on the course.

OC = Organizers of the competition

Overlay Concept Overlay being the planning, design, installation and management (or any element of the proceeding) of temporary facilities to enhance the operations of a major sports event.

OWG = Olympic Winter Games

[edit] P

Pace time Pace time is a calculated value for men’s and ladies competitions. The pace speed for the moguls is 8.3 m/sec for ladies and 9.7 m/sec for men. To calculate the pace time for a specific course, take the length of the course in metres and divide by the pace speed in m/sec.

Partial pressure in a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas in the mixture.

Percentage (%) of maximum Term used in best scores report that compares the current best score to the maximum possible score in the current scoring system.

Phase This is the progression system in competition. Freestyle Skiing consists of the following phases – for Moguls and Aerials: - Qualification, - Final For Ski Cross: - Qualification - 1/8 Finals (men only) - Quarterfinals - Semifinals - Finals (Classification 5-8 and Final)

Place The resort, town, etc. Example: Oberhofen

Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic amorphous solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.

Polyamide is a polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. They can occur both naturally and artificially, examples being proteins, such as wool and silk, and can be made artificially through step-growth polymerization, examples being nylons, aramids, and sodium poly(aspartate).

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene which finds numerous applications. PTFE is most well known by the DuPont brand name Teflon. PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high molecular weight compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. Neither water and water-containing substances nor oil and oil-containing substances are wet by PTFE.

Polyester is a category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. Although there are many polyesters, the term "polyester" as a specific material most commonly refers to polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally-occurring chemicals, such as in the cutin of plant cuticles, as well as synthetics through step-growth polymerization such as polycarbonate and polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not.

Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including packaging, textiles (e.g. ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical solvents, bases and acids.

Polyurethane, commonly abbreviated PU, is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate) links. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by reacting a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups with another monomer containing at least two hydroxyl (alcohol) groups in the presence of a catalyst.

Protest A formal complaint from a NSA or NOC delegation to the Jury.

Provisional homologation course is approved pending further inspections prescribed by the FIS Freestyle Subcommittee for Rules & Officials

[edit] Q

Qualification The preliminary Phase of an event used to select a group of competitors who will participate in the final.

Qualified A competitor who is allowed to participate in the Final.

[edit] R

Racedate Date of competition; Day, Day in numerical form: 01, 11, 21, etc., Month, Month in numerical form: 01, 02, 03, etc., Year;Year in four digit numerical form: 2000, 2001, 2002, etc.

Race Director The Race Director is responsible for the coordination of the technical aspects at freestyle skiing competitions.

Race points FIS points earned by each competitor in the current event.

Randomness is a concept with somewhat disparate meanings in several fields. It also has common meanings which may have loose connections with some of those more definite meanings. The OED defines "random" thus: Having no definite aim or purpose; not sent or guided in a particular direction; made, done, occurring, etc., without method or conscious choice; haphazard. Also, in statistics, as: Governed by or involving equal chances for each of the actual or hypothetical members of a population; (also) produced or obtained by such a process, and therefore unpredictable in detail.

Rank Placing in an event. Competitors are ranked according to FIS rules.

Receives no score (RNS) A zero score given to a competitor (for example: a Moguls competitor who skis around a control gate in Moguls). A RNS, in contrast to a DSQ, receives the last place in the field.

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of an object (typically referred to as an RFID tag) applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

Roll call The process of confirming if a delegation is present during the team captains meeting.

Rubber (natural) is an elastomer (an elastic hydrocarbon polymer) that was originally derived from a milky colloidal suspension, or latex, found in the sap of some plants. The purified form of natural rubber is the chemical polyisoprene which can also be produced synthetically. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products as is synthetic rubber.

Run (first run/second run) Run is used to describe the performance in the Ski Cross - qualification phase. All skiers have 2 timed runs. The better of two runs determines the qualification-ranking list.

[edit] S

Safety Bindings function as strain limiters. That is, these devices transfer specific demands occurring during skiing to an acceptable limit, and when this limit is overstepped, they release their firm hold to the ski. (See 4306.1.2, 4206.1.2, 4008.2.2)

Score verifier The FIS reserve judge who is responsible for checking the addition of the judges marks and the correctness of the printed results. The score verifier can also replace a judge if the need arises.

Season 2010 = season July 2009 – April 2010, 2010 = season July 2009 – April 2010, etc.

Sector Definition of the sector (FIS discipline): AL (Alpine), CC (Cross-Country), JP (Ski Jumping), NK (Nordic Combined), FS (Freestyle), SB (Snowboard), SS (Speed Skiing), GS (Grass Skiing), TM (Telemark)

Seed (“A” seed & “B” seed) The top 16 men and eight ladies from the seed list comprise the “A” seed; the remainder of the field become the “B” seed.

Seed list List of competitors entered in the current competition in order of their seed points separated into groups.

Seed points The average of each athlete’s two best FIS World Cup points over a twelve (12) month period.

Sievert (symbol: Sv) is the International System of Units (SI) SI derived unit of dose equivalent radiation. It attempts to quantitatively evaluate the biological effects of ionizing radiation as opposed to the physical aspects, which are characterised by the absorbed dose, measured in gray.

Sex M = Men, L = Ladies

Silicones are largely inert, man-made compounds with a wide variety of forms and uses. Typically heat-resistant, nonstick, and rubber-like, they are commonly used in cookware, medical applications, sealants, adhesives, lubricants, and insulation. Silicones are polymers that include silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes other chemical elements.

Ski area is a developed recreational facility, usually on a mountain or large hill, containing ski trails and vital supporting services. It is common for a ski area to have food, rental equipment, parking facilities and a ski lift system catering to the sports of skiing and snowboarding. Normally located in high mountain areas (or at least on well-built-up hills) for adequate snow coverage, they have become ubiquitous in areas where skiing is a popular pastime. The paths are usually marked and known as runs, trails or pistes. Ski areas typically have one or more chair lifts for moving skiers rapidly to the top of hills, and to interconnect the various pistes. Rope tows can also be used on short slopes (usually beginner hills). Larger ski areas may use gondolas or aerial tramways for transportation across longer distances within the ski area. A ski resort is a ski area plus amenities to make it a destination resort.

Ski Boots Ski boots are robust footwear developed especially for skiing, offering protection against jolts and bumps as well as injury from ski edges and other external causes. The ski boot encloses the foot firmly, while at the same time allowing the movement necessary for skiing techniques, in that the ankle has the room it needs to move, but at the same time allowing the transfer of every steering movement completely to the ski.

Ski Gloves Gloves offer protective covering against weather and external forces. The wearing of gloves is strongly recommended. Protective padding along the entire length of the glove is permitted. The use of protective guards in the form of shields, which are pulled over the glove, is permitted.

Ski Goggles Ski goggles are devices protecting the eyes against weather and rays with optically correct lenses. Their aim is to guarantee good, contrast-free visibility in all weather conditions. The use of ski goggles is recommended.

Ski lift can refer to many different types of uphill transport, in three main classes: Aerial lifts: including:Aerial tramways, Funifors, Funitels, Gondola lifts, Telemix, Detachable chairlifts; Chairlifts, Surface lifts, including: T-bars, J-bars, Platter/Button/Poma lifts, Rope tows & handle tows, Magic carpets, Cable railways, including: Funiculars

Ski Poles The ski pole is a sports article whose function should aid the skier, facilitate balance and, if necessary, enable stopping. The national and international guidelines and norms establish the minimum requirements for ski pole tips, grips, shaft, baskets, straps, length, etc. Due to risk of injury, metal baskets are not permitted.

Ski Stoppers The ski stopper is a catching apparatus for skis, whose function is to stop or bring to a standstill the loose ski following the release of the safety binding within the intermediate area of the skiers fall. In competitions and official training skis without ski stoppers are not permitted. Ski Stoppers must be mounted in such a way as not to impede the operation of the device. The manufacturer is responsible for a perfect function of the ski stoppers.

Skiers Left and Skiers Right, denotes the position of the viewer in relationship to the course.

Slippers persons, who groom the snow surface with their skis, removing ruts and snow between competitiors runs.  This group has a training session to go over proper ways to slip.  During competition days, Slip Crews inject themselves between competitiors to side-slip a short section of the course, between pre-defined pull-outs. After a number of racers have passed, the Slip Crews on the course will all slip to the next pullout.  Also referred to as "High Speed Slip".

Slope Orientation The compass direction of a slope taken in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the face, or looking down the fall line. Various weather factors vary with aspect, such as solar radiation and wind loading, and therefore the snowpack and its stability will depend heavily on this parameter.

Slope is used to describe the steepness, incline, gradient, or grade of a straight line. A higher slope value indicates a steeper incline. The slope is defined as the ratio of the "rise" divided by the "run" between two points on a line, or in other words, the ratio of the altitude change to the horizontal distance between any two points on the line. It is also always the same thing as how many rises in one run.

Solid objects are in the states of matter characterized by resistance to deformation and changes of volume.

Soluble or Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a liquid solvent to form a homogeneous solution. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the used solvent as well as on temperature and pressure. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution.

Sport A sport is administered by an international federation and can be composed of one or more disciplines.

Sport discipline A Discipline is a branch of an Olympic sport comprising one or several Events.

Sport and IF Services The function responsible for the preparation and staging of sports competitions during the Olympic Winter Games. It also services the requirements of International Federations before and during the Games.

Square meter is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (33A1 in Unicode[1]). It is defined as the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one meter.

Start number A number representing the order in which a competitor will start.

Start Area = Contains a start device and flat space where competitors and equipment is prepared

Status DNS = Did not start, DNS = Did not start, DSQ = Disqualified, DNF = Did not finish, DNQ = Did not qualify

Stadium = Includes, the Course and the Spectator Viewing Area.

Stop Start A verbal command that the competition is stopped and the next competitior in start position is held in start gate

Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve upon naturally occurring animal and plant. In general, synthetic fibers are created by forcing, usually through extrusion, fiber forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, forming a thread. Before synthetic fibers were developed, artificially manufactured fibers were made from cellulose, which comes from plants called cellulose fibers.

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Table The flat area of an Aerial site on which the Kickers are built.

Technical fabrics are high-performance fabrics designed and marketed mainly for sportwear and sporting goods. They are usually all-synthetic, or have synthetic components as part of a composite design. Some are multi-layer bonded fabrics, some are textiles treated with synthetic substances and some are made from a single synthetic substance.

Textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibres, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).

Tie When two or more competitors receive the same score.

Tie-break points The result of the tie-breaking process. Basically representing a comparison of judges scores for each competitor affected by the Tie.

Tie-breaking The process used to determine if a tie can be broken.

Time is a component of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify the motions of objects. An operational definition of time, wherein one says that observing a certain number of repetitions of one or another standard cyclical event (such as the passage of a free-swinging pendulum) constitutes one standard unit such as the second.

Time points Conversion of time into a point score once the “Grange Formula” has been applied. See FIS Rule Book.

Timing tape The printed record of each timing impulse, time of day, bib number and elapsed time produced by the official time keeping system.

Tricot is a plain warp-knit fabric that can be created with an array of fibres and fibre blends. It is not unusual for various types of tricot to be manufactured with the use of cotton, wool, silk, rayon, or nylon, or any combination of fibres. Because the pattern for tricot fabric is a close-knit design with fibres running lengthwise while employing an interlooped yarn pattern, the texture of tricot is a little different from some other types of material.

Three-dimensional space (3D) is a geometric model of the physical universe in which we live. The three dimensions are commonly called length, width, and depth (or height), although any three mutually perpendicular directions can serve as the three dimensions.

Trauma center is a hospital equipped to provide comprehensive emergency medical services to patients suffering traumatic injuries. Trauma centers were established as the medical establishment realized that traumatic injuries often require complex and multi-disciplinary treatment, including surgery in order to give the victim the best possible chance for survival and recovery.

Truncation is the term for limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point, by discarding the least significant ones.

Turn around time, the time, in minutes it takes to get the start and complete a jump or ski run, the time it takes on the ski lift, and then to arrive back to the start again for another jump or training run. This includes, the time of the run, the time it takes from the finish area to the ski lift, then lift time, time it takes to the from the end lift station to the start.

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Valgus In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a term for the outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of valgus is called varus.

Varus In orthopedics, a varus deformity is a term for the inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of varus is called valgus.

Venue Includes the Stadium and all of the related Infrastructure.

Venue Management The function responsible for preparing and operating competition venues for test events and the Olympic Winter Games. Responsibilities include client and customer service provision.

Vinyl is any organic compound that contains a vinyl group (also called ethenyl)

Velocity is defined as the rate of change of position. It is a vector physical quantity; both speed and direction are required to define it. In the SI (metric) system, it is measured in meters per second: (m/s) or ms-1.

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Yearofbirth The competitor’s year of birth as it appears on the FIS list.

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Waterproof / breathable fabrics resist water droplets from passing through while at the same time allowing water vapour through. Their ability to block out rain and snow while allowing vapor from sweat to evaporate lends to their use in outdoor sports clothing and single wall tents.

Waterproof fabrics are usually natural or synthetic fabrics that are laminated to or coated in some sort of permanently waterproofing material, such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU), silicone elastomer, and wax.

WC World Cup

WiFi The term Wi-Fi is often used by the public as a synonym for wireless LAN (WLAN);

Winter Olympic Games is a winter multi-sport event held every four years. They feature winter sports held on snow or ice, such as Alpine skiing, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsledding and ice hockey. Cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have all been competed at every Winter Olympics since 1924. Other athletic events have been added as the Games have progressed. Some of these events, such as luge, short track speed skating, and freestyle skiing have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic program. Others, like speed skiing, bandy, and skijöring have been demonstration sports but never incorporated officially as an Olympic sport.

Woven is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming. Most cloth in use is woven. Woven material is generally used for hats like Top hats and caps.

WLAN A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spread-spectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a limited area. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.

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Return to Freestyle Skiing, Mogul Glossary, Ski Cross Glossary, Timing Glossary or Aerial Glossary.

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